Metabolic activation of zebularine, a novel DNA methylation inhibitor, in human bladder carcinoma cells. Ben-Kasus T, Ben-Zvi Z, Marquez VE, Kelley JA, Agbaria R, Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel

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Abstract

Zebularine (2(1H)-pyrimidinone riboside, Zeb), a synthetic analogue of cytidine that is a potent inhibitor of cytidine deaminase, has been recently identified as a general inhibitor of DNA methylation. This inhibition of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) is hypothesized to be mechanism-based and result from formation of a covalent complex between the enzyme and zebularine-substituted DNA. Metabolic activation of Zeb thus requires that it be phosphorylated and incorporated into DNA. We have quantitatively assessed the phosphorylation and DNA incorporation of Zeb in T24 cells using 2-[(14)C]-Zeb in conjunction with gradient anion-exchange HPLC and selected enzymatic and spectroscopic analyses. The corresponding 5′-mono-, di- and triphosphates of Zeb were readily formed in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Two additional Zeb-containing metabolites were tentatively identified as diphosphocholine (Zeb-DP-Chol) and diphosphoethanolamine adducts. Intracellular concentrations of Zeb-TP and Zeb-DP-Chol were similar and greatly exceeded those of other metabolites. DNA incorporation occurred but was surpassed by that of RNA by at least seven-fold. Equivalent levels and similar intracellular metabolic patterns were also observed in the Molt-4 (human T-lymphoblasts) and MC38 (murine colon carcinoma) cell lines. For male BALB/c nu/nu mice implanted s.c. with the EJ6 variant of T24 bladder carcinoma and treated i.p. with 500mg/kg 2-[(14)C]-Zeb, the in vivo phosphorylation pattern of Zeb in tumor tissue examined 24h after drug administration was similar to that observed in vitro. The complex metabolism of Zeb and its limited DNA incorporation suggest that these are the reasons why it is less potent than either 5-azacytidine or 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine and requires higher doses for equivalent inhibition of DNMT.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)565
Number of pages1
JournalUrologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations
Volume24
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2006

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pyrimidin-2-one beta-ribofuranoside
Clinical Pharmacology
Israel
DNA Methylation
Urinary Bladder
Carcinoma
DNA
Health
decitabine
Methyltransferases
Pyrimidinones
Phosphorylation
Cytidine Deaminase
Azacitidine
Cytidine
Diphosphates
Metabolic Activation
Anions

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Urology

Cite this

@article{69822c0416d3424ab1556484fcb92fcb,
title = "Metabolic activation of zebularine, a novel DNA methylation inhibitor, in human bladder carcinoma cells. Ben-Kasus T, Ben-Zvi Z, Marquez VE, Kelley JA, Agbaria R, Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel",
abstract = "Zebularine (2(1H)-pyrimidinone riboside, Zeb), a synthetic analogue of cytidine that is a potent inhibitor of cytidine deaminase, has been recently identified as a general inhibitor of DNA methylation. This inhibition of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) is hypothesized to be mechanism-based and result from formation of a covalent complex between the enzyme and zebularine-substituted DNA. Metabolic activation of Zeb thus requires that it be phosphorylated and incorporated into DNA. We have quantitatively assessed the phosphorylation and DNA incorporation of Zeb in T24 cells using 2-[(14)C]-Zeb in conjunction with gradient anion-exchange HPLC and selected enzymatic and spectroscopic analyses. The corresponding 5′-mono-, di- and triphosphates of Zeb were readily formed in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Two additional Zeb-containing metabolites were tentatively identified as diphosphocholine (Zeb-DP-Chol) and diphosphoethanolamine adducts. Intracellular concentrations of Zeb-TP and Zeb-DP-Chol were similar and greatly exceeded those of other metabolites. DNA incorporation occurred but was surpassed by that of RNA by at least seven-fold. Equivalent levels and similar intracellular metabolic patterns were also observed in the Molt-4 (human T-lymphoblasts) and MC38 (murine colon carcinoma) cell lines. For male BALB/c nu/nu mice implanted s.c. with the EJ6 variant of T24 bladder carcinoma and treated i.p. with 500mg/kg 2-[(14)C]-Zeb, the in vivo phosphorylation pattern of Zeb in tumor tissue examined 24h after drug administration was similar to that observed in vitro. The complex metabolism of Zeb and its limited DNA incorporation suggest that these are the reasons why it is less potent than either 5-azacytidine or 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine and requires higher doses for equivalent inhibition of DNMT.",
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T1 - Metabolic activation of zebularine, a novel DNA methylation inhibitor, in human bladder carcinoma cells. Ben-Kasus T, Ben-Zvi Z, Marquez VE, Kelley JA, Agbaria R, Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel

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N2 - Zebularine (2(1H)-pyrimidinone riboside, Zeb), a synthetic analogue of cytidine that is a potent inhibitor of cytidine deaminase, has been recently identified as a general inhibitor of DNA methylation. This inhibition of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) is hypothesized to be mechanism-based and result from formation of a covalent complex between the enzyme and zebularine-substituted DNA. Metabolic activation of Zeb thus requires that it be phosphorylated and incorporated into DNA. We have quantitatively assessed the phosphorylation and DNA incorporation of Zeb in T24 cells using 2-[(14)C]-Zeb in conjunction with gradient anion-exchange HPLC and selected enzymatic and spectroscopic analyses. The corresponding 5′-mono-, di- and triphosphates of Zeb were readily formed in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Two additional Zeb-containing metabolites were tentatively identified as diphosphocholine (Zeb-DP-Chol) and diphosphoethanolamine adducts. Intracellular concentrations of Zeb-TP and Zeb-DP-Chol were similar and greatly exceeded those of other metabolites. DNA incorporation occurred but was surpassed by that of RNA by at least seven-fold. Equivalent levels and similar intracellular metabolic patterns were also observed in the Molt-4 (human T-lymphoblasts) and MC38 (murine colon carcinoma) cell lines. For male BALB/c nu/nu mice implanted s.c. with the EJ6 variant of T24 bladder carcinoma and treated i.p. with 500mg/kg 2-[(14)C]-Zeb, the in vivo phosphorylation pattern of Zeb in tumor tissue examined 24h after drug administration was similar to that observed in vitro. The complex metabolism of Zeb and its limited DNA incorporation suggest that these are the reasons why it is less potent than either 5-azacytidine or 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine and requires higher doses for equivalent inhibition of DNMT.

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