Background: Pathogenic variants in lamin A/C (LMNA) cause a variety of progeroid disorders including Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome, mandibuloacral dysplasia, and atypical progeroid syndrome. Six families with 11 patients harboring a pathogenic heterozygous LMNA c.1045C>T; p.R349W variant have been previously reported to have partial lipodystrophy, cardiomyopathy, and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), suggesting a distinct progeroid syndrome. Methods: We report 6 new patients with a heterozygous LMNA p.R349W variant and review the phenotype of previously reported patients to define their unique characteristics. We also performed functional studies on the skin fibroblasts of a patient to seek the underlying mechanisms of various clinical manifestations. Results: Of the total 17 patients, all 14 adults with the heterozygous LMNA p.R349W variant had peculiar lipodystrophy affecting the face, extremities, palms, and soles with variable gain of subcutaneous truncal fat. All of them had proteinuric nephropathy with FSGS documented in 7 of them. Ten developed cardiomyopathy, and 2 of them died early at ages 33 and 45 years. Other common features included premature graying, alopecia, high-pitched voice, micrognathia, hearing loss, and scoliosis. Metabolic complications, including diabetes mellitus, hypertriglyceridemia, and hepatomegaly, were highly prevalent. This variant did not show any abnormal splicing, and no abnormal nuclear morphology was noted in the affected fibroblasts. Conclusions: The heterozygous LMNA p.R349W variant in affected individuals has several distinct phenotypic features, and these patients should be classified as having multisystem progeroid syndrome (MSPS). MSPS patients should undergo careful assessment at symptom onset and yearly metabolic, renal, and cardiac evaluation because hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, FSGS, and cardiomyopathy cause major morbidity and mortality.
- Diabetes mellitus
- Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
- Lamin A/C
- Progeroid syndrome
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism