Neuroendocrine-immune interactions in neurotropic viral infections

Jane C. Welsh, Andrew J. Steelman, Amy N. Sieve, Wentao Mi, Robin R. Johnson, Colin R. Young, Thomas W. Prentice, Mary W. Meagher

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

Historical aspects of the neuroendocrine-immune connection In order to understand the connection between the neuroendocrine and immune system, it is important to discuss the historical aspects of this relationship and the formulation of the concepts of homeostasis and stress. Claude Bernard in the 1860s developed the concept of “the milieu interne” to describe the balance of the internal milieu. In 1927, Cannon defined the fight or flight response to a threat and the concept of homeostasis as the physiological process by which an organism maintains a stable internal environment [1]. Then in 1936, Hans Selye observed that sick patients all had similar nonspecific symptoms: malaise, fever, and loss of appetite [2]. He proposed the general adaptation syndrome that states that when threatened by a threat or infection, the central nervous system (CNS) diverts the organism's energy reserves from nonessential functions (reproduction, growth) to functions that allow the organism to cope with the insult. Selye borrowed the term “stress” from the physical sciences to describe factors that upset homeostasis. He observed that stressed animals developed atrophy of the thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes and enlarged adrenal glands. Eventually, these effects were discovered to be the result of activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). Recently, McEwen has proposed the concept of allostatic load, which describes the cumulative effects of chronic stess that can result in dysregulation of multiple integrated physiological systems [3].

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationNeurotropic Viral Infections
PublisherCambridge University Press
Pages300-314
Number of pages15
Volume9780521869645
ISBN (Print)9780511541728, 9780521869645
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2008

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Virus Diseases
Homeostasis
General Adaptation Syndrome
Allostasis
History
Physiological Phenomena
Natural Science Disciplines
Central Nervous System Infections
Neurosecretory Systems
Appetite
Adrenal Glands
Thymus Gland
Atrophy
Reproduction
Immune System
Fever
Spleen
Lymph Nodes
Growth

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)

Cite this

Welsh, J. C., Steelman, A. J., Sieve, A. N., Mi, W., Johnson, R. R., Young, C. R., ... Meagher, M. W. (2008). Neuroendocrine-immune interactions in neurotropic viral infections. In Neurotropic Viral Infections (Vol. 9780521869645, pp. 300-314). Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511541728.021

Neuroendocrine-immune interactions in neurotropic viral infections. / Welsh, Jane C.; Steelman, Andrew J.; Sieve, Amy N.; Mi, Wentao; Johnson, Robin R.; Young, Colin R.; Prentice, Thomas W.; Meagher, Mary W.

Neurotropic Viral Infections. Vol. 9780521869645 Cambridge University Press, 2008. p. 300-314.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Welsh, JC, Steelman, AJ, Sieve, AN, Mi, W, Johnson, RR, Young, CR, Prentice, TW & Meagher, MW 2008, Neuroendocrine-immune interactions in neurotropic viral infections. in Neurotropic Viral Infections. vol. 9780521869645, Cambridge University Press, pp. 300-314. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511541728.021
Welsh JC, Steelman AJ, Sieve AN, Mi W, Johnson RR, Young CR et al. Neuroendocrine-immune interactions in neurotropic viral infections. In Neurotropic Viral Infections. Vol. 9780521869645. Cambridge University Press. 2008. p. 300-314 https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511541728.021
Welsh, Jane C. ; Steelman, Andrew J. ; Sieve, Amy N. ; Mi, Wentao ; Johnson, Robin R. ; Young, Colin R. ; Prentice, Thomas W. ; Meagher, Mary W. / Neuroendocrine-immune interactions in neurotropic viral infections. Neurotropic Viral Infections. Vol. 9780521869645 Cambridge University Press, 2008. pp. 300-314
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