AKI and CKD are important clinical problems because they affectmany patients and the associated diagnostic and treatment paradigms are imperfect. Ultrasound is a cost-effective, noninvasive, and simple imaging modality that offers a multitude of means to improve the diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment of both AKI and CKD, especially considering recent advances in this technique. Ultrasound alone can attenuate AKI and prevent CKD by stimulating the splenic cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Additionally,microbubble contrast agents are improving the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound for diagnosing kidney disease, especially when these agents are conjugated to ligand-specific mAbs or peptides, which make the dynamic assessment of disease progression and response to treatment possible.More recently, drug-loadedmicrobubbles have been developed and the load release by ultrasound exposure has been shown to be a highly specific treatment modality, making the potential applications of ultrasound even more promising. This review focuses on the multiple strategies for using ultrasound with and without microbubble technology for enhancing our understanding of the pathophysiology of AKI and CKD.
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