The purpose of this work was to review the St. Jude Children's Research Hospital experience of patients presenting with metastatic Ewing sarcoma over a 30-year period. Forty-three of 212 cases of Ewing sarcoma presented with metastases at diagnosis. These patients were analyzed to determine whether primary tumor site or size, metastatic site(s), or advances in therapy have had a positive impact on survival. The overall survival for our 43 patients was 35% (95% confidence intervals, 20% to 50%). Comparing patients treated prior to 1979 with those treated after 1979, the overall survival was significantly different (P = 0.0002). Comparing overall survival between pelvic and nonpelvic primaries (P = 0.24), among metastatic sites (P = 0.83), and between tumors measuring >8 cm in diameter to tumors measuring <8 cm in diameter (P = 0.12), no significant differences were observed. Approximately one-third of patients presenting with metastatic Ewing sarcoma may achieve long-term survival. Children with metastatic Ewing sarcoma may benefit from clinical trials which intensify the doses of doxorubicin, and the highly effective combination of ifosfamide/etoposide.