Background: Spinal surgery is associated with an inherently elevated risk profile, and thus far there has been limited discussion about how these outpatient spine patients are benefiting from these same-day procedures against other typical outpatient orthopedic surgeries. Methods: Orthopedic patients who received either inpatient or outpatient surgery were isolated in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality of Improvement Program (2005–2016). Patients were stratified by type of orthopedic surgery received (spine, knee, ankle, shoulder, or hip). Mean comparisons and chi-squared tests assessed basic demographics. Perioperative complications were analyzed via regression analyses in regard to their principal inpatient or outpatient orthopedic surgery received. Results: This study included 729 480 surgical patients: 32.5% received spinal surgery, 36.5% knee, 24.1% hip, 4.9% shoulder, and 1.7%ankle. Of those who received a spinal procedure, 74.7% were inpatients (IN), and 25.3% were outpatients (OUT): knee: 96.1% IN, 3.9% OUT; hip:98.9% IN, 1.1% OUT; ankle: 29% IN, 71% OUT; and shoulder: 52.6% IN, 47.6% OUT. Hip patients were the oldest, and knee patients had the highest body mass index out of the orthopedic groups (P, .00). Spine IN patients experienced more complications than the other orthopedic groups and had the lowest OUT complications(both P, .05). This same trend of having higher IN complications than OUT complications was identified for hip, shoulder, and knee. However, ankle procedures had greater OUT procedure complications than IN (P, .05). After controlling for age, body mass index, and Charlson Comorbidity Index, IN procedures, such as knee, hip, spine, and shoulder, were significantly associated with experiencing postoperative complications. From 2006 to 2016, IN and OUT surgeries were significantly different among complications experienced for all of the orthopedic groups (P, .05) with complications decreasing for IN and OUT patients by 2016. Conclusions: Over the past decade, spine surgery has decreased in complications for IN and OUT procedures along with IN/OUT knee, ankle, hip, and shoulder procedures, reflecting greater tolerance for risk in an outpatient setting. Level of Evidence: 3. Clinical Relevance: Despite the increase in riskier spine procedures, complications have decreased over the years. Surgeons should aim to continue to decrease inpatient spine complications to the level of other orthopedic surgeries.
- Orthopedic surgery
- Spine surgery
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine