Nephrolithiasis is a common disorder that accounts for significant cost, morbidity, and loss of work. There is a one in eight lifetime chance of being diagnosed with urinary stones. Calcium is the most common component of renal stones in individuals in industrialized nations. Calcium stones form as a result of a variety of environmental and metabolic abnormalities that change the urinary environment and increase supersaturation of stone-forming salts. Understanding the pathophysiology of stone disease can help direct treatment toward correction of the underlying abnormalities. Current medical and dietary therapeutic regimens have been shown to significantly reduce the risk of recurrent stone formation.
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