The development of biliary tract calculi after orthotopic liver transplantation presents a unique clinical problem. Previously described techniques for removing biliary stones by shock wave lithotripsy, litholytic therapy with oral bile acids, and endoscopic mechanical extraction may be ineffective or contraindicated in liver transplant patients. For this reason, percutaneous transhepatic electrohydraulic lithotripsy (EHL) was performed using an 11 French flexible ureteroscope in two pediatric patients who developed biliary tract calculi following orthotopic liver transplant. There were no complications and postoperative follow-up over 4 years has been uneventful. To our knowledge, these represent the first reported cases of percutaneous transhepatic endoscopic EHL to fragment biliary tract stones in a transplanted liver, which for us has been a safe and effective therapeutic option.
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