Most physicians believe they practiced personalized medicine prior to the genomics era that followed the sequencing of the human genome. The focus of personalized medicine has been primarily genomic medicine, wherein it is hoped that the nucleotide dissimilarities among different individuals would provide clinicians with more precise understanding of physiology, more refined diagnoses, better disease risk assessment, earlier detection and monitoring, and tailored treatments to the individual patient. However, to date, the "genomic bench" has not worked itself to the clinical thrombosis bedside. In fact, traditional plasma-based hemostasis-thrombosis laboratory testing, by assessing functional pathways of coagulation, may better help manage venous thrombotic disease than a single DNA variant with a small effect size. There are some new and exciting discoveries in the genetics of platelet reactivity pertaining to atherothrombotic disease. Despite a plethora of genetic/genomic data on platelet reactivity, there are relatively little actionable pharmacogenetic data with antiplatelet agents. Nevertheless, it is crucial for genome-wide DNA/RNA sequencing to continue in research settings for causal gene discovery, pharmacogenetic purposes, and gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. The potential of genomics to advance medicine will require integration of personal data that are obtained in the patient history: environmental exposures, diet, social data, etc. Furthermore, without the ritual of obtaining this information, we will have depersonalized medicine, which lacks the precision needed for the research required to eventually incorporate genomics into routine, optimal, and value-added clinical care.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology