Klotho is a putative aging suppressor gene encoding a single-pass transmembrane co-receptor that makes the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor specific for FGF-23. In addition to multiple endocrine organs, Klotho is expressed in kidney distal convoluted tubules and parathyroid cells, mediating the role of FGF-23 in bone-kidney-parathyroid control of phosphate and calcium. Klotho&x207B;/&x207B; mice display premature aging and chronic kidney disease-associated mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD)-like phenotypes mediated by hyperphosphatemia and remediated by phosphate-lowering interventions (diets low in phosphate or vitamin D; knockouts of 1α-hydroxylase, vitamin D receptor, or NaPi cotransporter). CKD can be seen as a state of hyperphosphatemia-induced accelerated aging associated with Klotho deficiency. Humans with CKD experience decreased Klotho expression as early as stage 1 CKD; Klotho continues to decline as CKD progresses, causing FGF-23 resistance and provoking large FGF-23 and parathyroid hormone increases, and hypovitaminosis D. Secreted Klotho protein, formed by extracellular clipping, exerts FGF-23-independent phosphaturic and calcium-conserving effects through its paracrine action on the proximal and distal tubules, respectively. We contend that decreased Klotho expression is the earliest biomarker of CKD and the initiator of CKD-MBD pathophysiology. Maintaining normal phosphate levels with phosphate binders in patients with CKD with declining Klotho expression is expected to reduce mineral and vascular derangements.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||Kidney international. Supplement|
|State||Published - Apr 1 2011|
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