Theoretical aspects concerned with the calculation and measurement of the interfacial potential difference at the interface between two immiscible liquids are considered. The non-thermodynamic tetraphenylborate hypothesis, which makes it possible to determine standard ion distribution potentials, is discussed. Equations are presented for the calculation of potential drops in the following cases: the Donnan equilibrium, incomplete salt dissocation, two electrolytes with a common ion, complex formation in one of the phases, and redox equilibrium. The experimental techniques for measuring the interfacial potential difference are considered, and the thermodynamic theory of potential distributions is verified for reversible interfaces.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Surfaces and Interfaces
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Colloid and Surface Chemistry