Objective: The role of iliac artery angioplasty and stenting (IAS) for the treatment of limb-threatening ischemia is not defined. IAS has been used primarily for patients with disabling claudication. Because poorer results have been shown in patients with critical ischemia after iliac artery angioplasty, the purpose of this study was to estimate the influence of risk factors on the outcome of iliac angioplasty and stent placement in patients with limb-threatening ischemia. Methods: During a 5-year period (from 1996 to 2001), 85 iliac angioplasty and stent placement procedures (107 stents) were performed in 31 women and 43 men with limb-threatening ischemia. Patients with claudication were specifically excluded. The criteria prepared by the Ad Hoc Committee on Reporting Standards (Society for Vascular Surgery/International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery) were followed to define the variables. The TransAtlantic InterSociety Consensus classification was used to characterize the type of iliac lesions. Both univariate (Kaplan-Meier [KM]) and multivariate analyses (Cox proportional hazards model) were used to determine the association between variables, cumulative patency, limb salvage, and survival. Results: Indications for iliac angioplasty with stenting were ischemic rest pain (56%) and tissue loss (44%). Primary stenting was performed in 36 patients (42%). Stents were placed selectively after iliac angioplasty mainly for residual stenosis or pressure gradient (43%). Overall, primary stent patency rate was 90% at 1 year, 74% at 3 years, and 69% at 5 years. Primary stent patency rate was significantly reduced in women compared with men (KM, log-rank test, P < .001). Primary patency rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were 79%, 57%, and 38% for women and 92%, 88%, and 88% for men. Primary stent patency rate also was significantly reduced in patients with renal insufficiency (creatinine level, > 1.6 mg/dL; KM, log-rank test, P < .001). Cox regression analysis identified female gender (relative risk, 5.1; 95% CI, 1.8 to 7.9; P = .002) and renal insufficiency (relative risk, 6.6; 95% CI, 1.6 to 14.2; P = .01) as independent predictors of decreased primary stent patency. No independent predictors for limb salvage and survival were identified. Conclusion: Women undergoing iliac angioplasty and stenting for limb-threatening ischemia have significantly reduced primary stent patency rates and may need additional procedures to obtain satisfactory clinical improvement and limb salvage. Patients with renal insufficiency and critical ischemia also have reduced primary stent patency rates after IAS. Limb salvage, as shown in this study, is not affected by previous iliac stent failure.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine