Prevention of bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing PCI

C. Michael Gibson, Roxana Mehran, Christoph Bode, Jonathan Halperin, Freek W. Verheugt, Peter Wildgoose, Mary Birmingham, Phar Juliana Ianus, Paul Burton, Martin Van Eickels, Serge Korjian, Yazan Daaboul, Gregory Y.H. Lip, Marc Cohen, Steen Husted, Eric D. Peterson, A. Keith Fox

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

BACKGROUND In patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with placement of stents, standard anticoagulation with a vitamin K antagonist plus dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with a P2Y12 inhibitor and aspirin reduces the risk of thrombosis and stroke but increases the risk of bleeding. The effectiveness and safety of anticoagulation with rivaroxaban plus either one or two antiplatelet agents are uncertain. METHODS We randomly assigned 2124 participants with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation who had undergone PCI with stenting to receive, in a 1:1:1 ratio, low-dose rivaroxaban (15 mg once daily) plus a P2Y12 inhibitor for 12 months (group 1), very-low-dose rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) plus DAPT for 1, 6, or 12 months (group 2), or standard therapy with a doseadjusted vitamin K antagonist (once daily) plus DAPT for 1, 6, or 12 months (group 3).The primary safety outcome was clinically significant bleeding (a composite of major bleeding or minor bleeding according to Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction [TIMI] criteria or bleeding requiring medical attention). RESULTS The rates of clinically significant bleeding were lower in the two groups receiving rivaroxaban than in the group receiving standard therapy (16.8% in group 1, 18.0% in group 2, and 26.7% in group 3; hazard ratio for group 1 vs. group 3, 0.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.47 to 0.76; P<0.001; hazard ratio for group 2 vs. group 3, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.50 to 0.80; P<0.001). The rates of death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, or stroke were similar in the three groups (Kaplan-Meier estimates, 6.5% in group 1, 5.6% in group 2, and 6.0% in group 3; P values for all comparisons were nonsignificant). CONCLUSIONS In participants with atrial fibrillation undergoing PCI with placement of stents, the administration of either low-dose rivaroxaban plus a P2Y12 inhibitor for 12 months or very-lowdose rivaroxaban plus DAPT for 1, 6, or 12 months was associated with a lower rate of clinically significant bleeding than was standard therapy with a vitamin K antagonist plus DAPT for 1, 6, or 12 months. The three groups had similar efficacy rates, although the observed broad confidence intervals diminish the surety of any conclusions regarding efficacy. (Funded by Janssen Scientific Affairs and Bayer Pharmaceuticals; PIONEER AF-PCI ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01830543.)

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2423-2434
Number of pages12
JournalNew England Journal of Medicine
Volume375
Issue number25
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 22 2016
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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