Quantifying normal head form and craniofacial asymmetry of elementary school students in Taiwan

Chih Kai Hsu, Rami R. Hallac, Rafael Denadai, Sheng Wei Wang, Alex A. Kane, Lun Jou Lo, Pang Yun Chou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Defining three-dimensional (3D) normal craniofacial morphology in healthy children could provide craniofacial surgeons a reference point to assess disease, plan surgical reconstruction, and evaluate treatment outcome. The purposes of this study were to report normal craniofacial form and quantify craniofacial asymmetry of healthy children in Taiwan by implementing the 3D stereophotogrammetry technique. Methods: Healthy Taiwanese elementary school children (n = 652) aged 6–12 years with no known craniofacial anomaly were recruited. After the 3dMD scanning procedure, 32 landmarks were manually placed on the 3D cranial images. Thin plate spline algorithm based on landmarks and closest point matching was applied to deform a symmetric 3D template into the scale of each scanned images. Skull asymmetry and facial asymmetry were calculated using 3dMD vultus and MATLAB. Average head shape models were also presented. Results: Overall, the mean head transverse width, height, anteroposterior length, and circumferences were 163.02, 220.79, 179.07, and 526.55 mm, respectively. On average, the skull asymmetry and facial asymmetry were 2.47 ± 1.26 mm and 0.96 ± 0.53 mm, respectively, with no significant (all p > 0.05) differences found when comparing males and females. In the average head shape model, certain craniofacial areas on the right side were found to be more protruded than those on the left side. Conclusions: This study shows that the baseline craniofacial form of the Taiwanese elementary school children is asymmetric with a tendency of more protrusion of the head on the right side.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2019

Fingerprint

Taiwan
Head
Facial Asymmetry
Students
Skull
Photogrammetry

Keywords

  • 3D stereophotogrammetry
  • Craniofacial asymmetry
  • Head form
  • Head shape
  • Healthy children

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery

Cite this

Quantifying normal head form and craniofacial asymmetry of elementary school students in Taiwan. / Hsu, Chih Kai; Hallac, Rami R.; Denadai, Rafael; Wang, Sheng Wei; Kane, Alex A.; Lo, Lun Jou; Chou, Pang Yun.

In: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, 01.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{a47f5d96d7b545e7945c60815a0112ed,
title = "Quantifying normal head form and craniofacial asymmetry of elementary school students in Taiwan",
abstract = "Background: Defining three-dimensional (3D) normal craniofacial morphology in healthy children could provide craniofacial surgeons a reference point to assess disease, plan surgical reconstruction, and evaluate treatment outcome. The purposes of this study were to report normal craniofacial form and quantify craniofacial asymmetry of healthy children in Taiwan by implementing the 3D stereophotogrammetry technique. Methods: Healthy Taiwanese elementary school children (n = 652) aged 6–12 years with no known craniofacial anomaly were recruited. After the 3dMD scanning procedure, 32 landmarks were manually placed on the 3D cranial images. Thin plate spline algorithm based on landmarks and closest point matching was applied to deform a symmetric 3D template into the scale of each scanned images. Skull asymmetry and facial asymmetry were calculated using 3dMD vultus and MATLAB. Average head shape models were also presented. Results: Overall, the mean head transverse width, height, anteroposterior length, and circumferences were 163.02, 220.79, 179.07, and 526.55 mm, respectively. On average, the skull asymmetry and facial asymmetry were 2.47 ± 1.26 mm and 0.96 ± 0.53 mm, respectively, with no significant (all p > 0.05) differences found when comparing males and females. In the average head shape model, certain craniofacial areas on the right side were found to be more protruded than those on the left side. Conclusions: This study shows that the baseline craniofacial form of the Taiwanese elementary school children is asymmetric with a tendency of more protrusion of the head on the right side.",
keywords = "3D stereophotogrammetry, Craniofacial asymmetry, Head form, Head shape, Healthy children",
author = "Hsu, {Chih Kai} and Hallac, {Rami R.} and Rafael Denadai and Wang, {Sheng Wei} and Kane, {Alex A.} and Lo, {Lun Jou} and Chou, {Pang Yun}",
year = "2019",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.bjps.2019.09.005",
language = "English (US)",
journal = "Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery",
issn = "1748-6815",
publisher = "Churchill Livingstone",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Quantifying normal head form and craniofacial asymmetry of elementary school students in Taiwan

AU - Hsu, Chih Kai

AU - Hallac, Rami R.

AU - Denadai, Rafael

AU - Wang, Sheng Wei

AU - Kane, Alex A.

AU - Lo, Lun Jou

AU - Chou, Pang Yun

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - Background: Defining three-dimensional (3D) normal craniofacial morphology in healthy children could provide craniofacial surgeons a reference point to assess disease, plan surgical reconstruction, and evaluate treatment outcome. The purposes of this study were to report normal craniofacial form and quantify craniofacial asymmetry of healthy children in Taiwan by implementing the 3D stereophotogrammetry technique. Methods: Healthy Taiwanese elementary school children (n = 652) aged 6–12 years with no known craniofacial anomaly were recruited. After the 3dMD scanning procedure, 32 landmarks were manually placed on the 3D cranial images. Thin plate spline algorithm based on landmarks and closest point matching was applied to deform a symmetric 3D template into the scale of each scanned images. Skull asymmetry and facial asymmetry were calculated using 3dMD vultus and MATLAB. Average head shape models were also presented. Results: Overall, the mean head transverse width, height, anteroposterior length, and circumferences were 163.02, 220.79, 179.07, and 526.55 mm, respectively. On average, the skull asymmetry and facial asymmetry were 2.47 ± 1.26 mm and 0.96 ± 0.53 mm, respectively, with no significant (all p > 0.05) differences found when comparing males and females. In the average head shape model, certain craniofacial areas on the right side were found to be more protruded than those on the left side. Conclusions: This study shows that the baseline craniofacial form of the Taiwanese elementary school children is asymmetric with a tendency of more protrusion of the head on the right side.

AB - Background: Defining three-dimensional (3D) normal craniofacial morphology in healthy children could provide craniofacial surgeons a reference point to assess disease, plan surgical reconstruction, and evaluate treatment outcome. The purposes of this study were to report normal craniofacial form and quantify craniofacial asymmetry of healthy children in Taiwan by implementing the 3D stereophotogrammetry technique. Methods: Healthy Taiwanese elementary school children (n = 652) aged 6–12 years with no known craniofacial anomaly were recruited. After the 3dMD scanning procedure, 32 landmarks were manually placed on the 3D cranial images. Thin plate spline algorithm based on landmarks and closest point matching was applied to deform a symmetric 3D template into the scale of each scanned images. Skull asymmetry and facial asymmetry were calculated using 3dMD vultus and MATLAB. Average head shape models were also presented. Results: Overall, the mean head transverse width, height, anteroposterior length, and circumferences were 163.02, 220.79, 179.07, and 526.55 mm, respectively. On average, the skull asymmetry and facial asymmetry were 2.47 ± 1.26 mm and 0.96 ± 0.53 mm, respectively, with no significant (all p > 0.05) differences found when comparing males and females. In the average head shape model, certain craniofacial areas on the right side were found to be more protruded than those on the left side. Conclusions: This study shows that the baseline craniofacial form of the Taiwanese elementary school children is asymmetric with a tendency of more protrusion of the head on the right side.

KW - 3D stereophotogrammetry

KW - Craniofacial asymmetry

KW - Head form

KW - Head shape

KW - Healthy children

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85073526013&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85073526013&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.bjps.2019.09.005

DO - 10.1016/j.bjps.2019.09.005

M3 - Article

C2 - 31623984

AN - SCOPUS:85073526013

JO - Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery

JF - Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery

SN - 1748-6815

ER -