Recent advances in the diagnosis and management of cirrhosis-associated cardiomyopathy in liver transplant candidates: Advanced echo imaging, cardiac biomarkers, and advanced heart failure therapies

Maryjane Farr, Paul Christian Schulze

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations

Abstract

Patients with end-stage liver disease in need of liver transplantation increasingly are older with a greater burden of cardiac disease and other co-morbidities, which may increase perioperative risk and adversely affect long-term prognosis. Cirrhosis of any etiology manifests hemodynamically as a state of low systemic vascular resistance, with high peripheral, but low central blood volume, leading to a state of neurohormonal activation and high cardiac output, which may adversely affect cardiac reserve under extreme perioperative stress, aptly termed cirrhosis-associated or cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. Evi-dence of asymptomatic cirrhotic cardiomyopathy may be found in subtle electrocardiographic and echocardiographic changes, but may progress to severe heart failure under the demands of bleeding and transfusions, vasopressors, rebounding peripheral vascular resistance, withdrawal of cardioprotective beta-blockers and mineralocorticoid antagonists, exacerbated by sepsis or systemic inflammatory response syndrome. This review will add to the current body of literature on cirrhotic cardiomyopathy by focusing on the role of advanced echocardiographic imaging techniques, cardiac biomarkers, and advanced heart failure therapies available to manage patients with cirrhotic cardiomyopathy while waiting for liver transplant and during the perioperative period.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)67-74
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Medicine Insights: Cardiology
Volume8
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 28 2015
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Cirrhosis
  • Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy
  • Galectin-3
  • Heart failure
  • Liver transplantation
  • Mechanical circulatory support devices
  • Strain imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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