Objectives 2011 American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines recommended renal-bladder ultrasound (RBUS) as the only evaluation after febrile urinary tract infection (FUTI) in infants aged 2-24 months. We determined the sensitivity, specificity, and false negative rate of RBUS to identify DMSA-detected renal damage in this age group as well as in older children. Methods Consecutive patients referred to pediatric urology with a history of FUTI underwent DMSA 3 months after FUTI. Abnormal RBUS was defined as: Society of Fetal Urology hydronephrosis grades I-IV; hydroureter 7 mm; renal scar defined as focal parenchymal thinning; and/or size discrepancy 1 cm between kidneys. Abnormal DMSA was presence of any focal uptake defects and/or split renal function <44%. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and false negative rates of RBUS compared to DMSA. Results 618 patients (79% female), median age 3.4 years, were referred for FUTIs. Of the 512 (83%) with normal RBUS, 99 (19%) had abnormal DMSA. Children with normal RBUS after their first FUTI had abnormal DMSA in 15/151 (10%) aged â‰24 months and 23/119 (19%) aged ;gt&24 months. RBUS had poor sensitivity (34%) and low positive predictive value (47%) to identify patients with renal damage. 99/149 (66%) children with renal damage on DMSA had normal RBUS. Conclusion After FUTI, 66% of children with reduced renal function and/or renal cortical defects found by DMSA scintigraphy had a normal RBUS. Since abnormal DMSA may correlate with increased risk for VUR, recurrent FUTI and renal damage, our data suggest RBUS alone will fail to detect a significant proportion of patients at risk. The data suggest that imaging after FUTI should include acute RBUS and delayed DMSA, reserving VCUG for patients with abnormal DMSA and/or recurrent FUTI.
- Renal ultrasonography
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health