Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) account for up to 30 % of all congenital anomalies diagnosed (Schedl A. Nat Rev Genet 8(10):791-802, 2007). These anomalies are often prenatal diagnoses by screening prenatal ultrasound, but can present in childhood or adolescence with a urinary tract infection (UTI) and less commonly with pain. CAKUT diseases are responsible for around 50 % of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in children in North America (Harambat J, van Stralen KJ, Kim JJ, Tizard EJ. Pediatr Nephrol 27(3):363-373, 2012). In this chapter we will discuss the relevant embryology, the scope of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT), the approach to prenatal diagnosis and imaging of fetuses with CAKUT, and the approach to postnatal diagnosis and imaging of children with CAKUT. More time will be allotted to the more common congenital anomalies.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)