Introduction: We hypothesized that repeat cytoreductive surgery-hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion (CRS-HIPEC) for peritoneal metastases (PM) may be associated with suboptimal resection, more frequent postoperative complications, and worse oncologic outcomes. Methods: Using a prospectively maintained database, we compared clinicopathologic, perioperative, and oncologic outcome data in patients undergoing single or repeat CRS-HIPEC procedures. The Kaplan–Meier method was used to estimate survival. Multivariate analyses identified associations with perioperative and oncologic outcomes. Results: Of the 1294 patients undergoing CRS-HIPEC procedures at our institution, only one CRS-HIPEC procedure (single HIPEC cohort) was performed in 1169 patients (90.3%), whereas 125 patients (9.7%) underwent repeat CRS-HIPEC procedures (repeat HIPEC cohort). Of the 1440 CRS-HIPEC procedures at our institution, a first CRS-HIPEC procedure was performed in 1294 patients (89.9%), whereas subsequent second, third, and fourth CRS-HIPEC procedures were performed in 125 patients (8.7%), 18 patients (1.3%), and 3 patients (0.2%), respectively. Progression-free survival (PFS) following the second CRS-HIPEC procedure was negatively impacted by shorter PFS following the first CRS-HIPEC procedure, independent of other significant variables related to the second procedure, including completeness of cytoreduction and postoperative complications. Patients undergoing multiple CRS-HIPEC procedures were not at higher risk for suboptimal resection or postoperative complications and demonstrated equivalent PFS following each successive procedure compared to the first procedure. Conclusions: Repeat CRS-HIPEC procedures for PM were not associated with suboptimal perioperative and oncologic outcomes. Our data confirmed our ability to select patients appropriately for repeat CRS-HIPEC procedures.
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