Results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial program of single-dose ceftizoxime versus multiple-dose cefoxitin as prophylaxis for patients undergoing vaginal and abdominal hysterectomy

J. A. McGregor, L. E. Phillips, S. Roy, J. T. Dunne, A. S. Warwaruk, D. W. Johnston, A. A. Yuzpe, D. L. Hemsell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations

Abstract

In a series of three double-blind, controlled, clinical studies, the efficacy and safety of a single 1 gram dose of ceftizoxime were compared with those of a standard regimen, three 2 gram doses of cefoxitin, for prophylaxis of perioperative infection in women undergoing abdominal or vaginal hysterectomy. Two hundred and twenty-seven patients received ceftizoxime prophylaxis and 234 patients received cefoxitin prophylaxis. Study 1 entered 110 patients in Dallas, Texas and Los Angeles, California. Study 2 entered 242 patients in Canada. Study 3 entered 109 patients in Denver, Colorado. Within studies, the distribution of surgical procedures was comparable between antibiotic groups. The groups were similar for demographic and medical factors at each center and overall. Analyses were performed within and across studies, applying consistent criteria to the selection of evaluable patients and to the definitions of prophylactic success and primary and secondary prophylactic failure. Three hundred and sixteen patients were evaluable, 160 who received ceftizoxime and 156 who received cefoxitin. Overall, complete prophylactic success occurred in 138 of 160 evaluable patients (86.3 percent) receiving ceftizoxime and 128 of 156 evaluable patients (82.1 percent) receiving cefoxitin. Prophylactic success rates differed by study as well as by type of hysterectomy. In studies 1 and 2, prophylactic success rates for ceftizoxime were 95.1 and 87.6 percent, respectively, versus 93.1 and 87.8 percent for cefoxitin. In study 3, success rates were lowest, 70.0 percent for ceftizoxime and 59.5 percent for cefoxitin. Among evaluable patients overall, prophylactic success rates after vaginal hysterectomy were 91.0 percent for those receiving ceftizoxime and 85.1 percent for those receiving cefoxitin. After abdominal hysterectomy, success rates were 78.3 percent for both groups. Febrile morbidity rates and duration of hospitalization were comparable for both groups across all studies and within individual studies. Ceftizoxime and cefoxitin were safe and well tolerated. The results of these controlled studies indicate that single-dose ceftizoxime is as effective and safe as multiple-dose cefoxitin when used as adjunctive chemoprophylaxis in patients at risk of postoperative infection after vaginal or abdominal hysterectomy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)123-131
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the American College of Surgeons
Volume178
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 15 1994

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery

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