Background: Robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery (RALS) has expanded the role for minimally invasive surgery within pediatrics. RALS may be particularly beneficial for the treatment of children with a refluxing nonfunctioning renal moiety and contralateral vesicoureteral reflux. In this report, we describe a single RALS procedure, which includes both nephrectomy or partial nephrectomy, and contralateral extravesical ureteral reimplantation (EVUR). Methods: A retrospective review was performed of four patients who underwent RALS nephrectomy/partial nephrectomy and concurrent EVUR in one setting. Procedures were performed by a single surgeon using a robot-assisted laparoscopic approach. Four ports were used in a transperitoneal approach with patient positioning changed without moving the robotic system between the nephrectomy and reimplant. We described the technique and assessed its safety and efficacy. Results: All cases were treated with the single RALS approach. Mean patient age was 2.3 years. Three patients underwent a nephrectomy and one a lower pole partial nephrectomy. The mean estimated blood loss was 16 mL, mean operative time was 291 minutes, and mean length of stay was 2.3 days. There was one case of postoperative ureteral obstruction that was treated with 3 weeks of ureteral stenting without further sequela. Overall, the mean follow-up time was 21 months and follow-up renal ultrasonographs and radionuclide cystograms were normal in all patients. Conclusions: A single RALS procedure that combines nephrectomy/partial nephrectomy and EVUR offers a novel approach to a clinical dilemma that often requires two operations. In this small series, RALS was safe and efficacious. We recommend routine Double-J stenting for the solitary reimplanted ureter.
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