Partly due to the use of exhaustive-annotated data, deep networks have achieved impressive performance on medical image segmentation. Medical imaging data paired with noisy annotation are, however, ubiquitous, but little is known about the effect of noisy annotation on deep learning based medical image segmentation. We studied the effect of noisy annotation in the context of mandible segmentation from CT images. First, 202 images of head and neck cancer patients were collected from our clinical database, where the organs-at-risk were annotated by one of twelve planning dosimetrists. The mandibles were roughly annotated as the planning avoiding structure. Then, mandible labels were checked and corrected by a head and neck specialist to get the reference standard. At last, by varying the ratios of noisy labels in the training set, deep networks were trained and tested for mandible segmentation. The trained models were further tested on other two public datasets. Experimental results indicated that the network trained with noisy labels had worse segmentation than that trained with reference standard, and in general, fewer noisy labels led to better performance. When using 20% or less noisy cases for training, no significant difference was found on the segmentation results between the models trained by noisy or reference annotation. Cross-dataset validation results verified that the models trained with noisy data achieved competitive performance to that trained with reference standard. This study suggests that the involved network is robust to noisy annotation to some extent in mandible segmentation from CT images. It also highlights the importance of labeling quality in deep learning. In the future work, extra attention should be paid to how to utilize a small number of reference standard samples to improve the performance of deep learning with noisy annotation.
- deep learning
- medical image segmentation
- noisy annotation
- radiation oncology
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging