Role of NADPH oxidase NOX5-S, NF-κB, and DNMT1 in acid-induced p16 hypermethylation in Barrett's cells

Jie Hong, Dan Li, Jack Wands, Rhonda Souza, Weibiao Cao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

16 Scopus citations


Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes via promoter hypermethylation may play an important role in the progression from Barrett's esophagus (BE) to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA). We have previously shown that acid-induced p16 gene promoter hypermethylation may depend on activation of NADPH oxidase NOX5-S in BAR-T cells and OE33 EA cells. DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) is known to participate in maintaining established patterns of DNA methylation in dividing cells and may play an important role in the development of cancer. Therefore, we examined whether DNMT1 is involved in acid-induced p16 gene promoter hypermethylation in BAR-T cells. We found that the acid significantly increased p16 gene promoter methylation, decreased p16 mRNA, and increased cell proliferation, effects that may depend on activation of DNMT1 in BAR-T cells. DNMT1 is over expressed in EA cells FLO and OE33 and EA tissues. Acid treatment upregulated DNMT1 mRNA expression and increased DNMT1 promoter activity. Acid-induced increases in DNMT1 mRNA expression and promoter activity were significantly decreased by knockdown of NOX5-S and NF-κB1 p50. Conversely, over expression of NOX5-S, p50, or p65 significantly increased DNMT1 promoter activity. Knockdown of NOX5-S significantly decreased the acid-induced increase in luciferase activity in cells transfected with pNFκB-Luc. An NF-κB binding element GGGGTATCCC was identified in the DNMT1 gene promoter. We conclude that the acid-induced increase in p16 gene promoter methylation, downregulation of p16 mRNA, and increase in cell proliferation may depend on activation of DNMT1 in BAR-T cells. Acid-induced DNMT1 expression may depend on sequential activation of NOX5-S and NF-κB1 p50.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)C1069-C1079
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology
Issue number10
StatePublished - Nov 15 2013



  • Barrett's esophagus
  • DNMT1
  • Esophageal adenocarcinoma
  • NF-κB
  • NOX5-S

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Cell Biology

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