Protein kinases constitute one of the largest gene families and control many aspects of cellular life. In retrospect, the first indication for their existence was reported 130 years ago when the secreted protein, casein, was shown to contain phosphate. Despite its identification as the first phosphoprotein, the responsible kinase has remained obscure. This conundrum was solved with the discovery of a novel family of atypical protein kinases that are secreted and appear to phosphorylate numerous extracellular proteins, including casein. Fam20C, the archetypical member, phosphorylates secreted proteins within Ser-x-Glu/pSer motifs. This discovery has solved a 130-year-old mystery and has shed light on several human disorders of biomineralization.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology