Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as important players in the regulation of several aspects of cellular biology. For a better comprehension of their function, it is fundamental to determine their tissue or cell specificity and to identify their subcellular localization. In fact, the activity of lncRNAs may vary according to cell and tissue specificity and subcellular compartmentalization. Myofibers are the smallest complete contractile system of skeletal muscle influencing its contraction velocity and metabolism. How lncRNAs are expressed in different myofibers, participate in metabolism regulation and muscle atrophy or how they are compartmentalized within a single myofiber is still unknown. We compiled a comprehensive catalog of lncRNAs expressed in skeletal muscle, associating the fiber-type specificity and subcellular location to each of them, and demonstrating that many lncRNAs can be involved in the biological processes de-regulated during muscle atrophy. We demonstrated that the lncRNA Pvt1, activated early during muscle atrophy, impacts mitochondrial respiration and morphology and affects mito/autophagy, apoptosis and myofiber size in vivo. This work corroborates the importance of lncRNAs in the regulation of metabolism and neuromuscular pathologies and offers a valuable resource to study the metabolism in single cells characterized by pronounced plasticity.
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