Smad3 has a critical role in TGF-β-mediated growth inhibition and apoptosis in colonic epithelial cells

Suhail K. Mithani, Glen C. Balch, Sheng Ru Shiou, Robert H. Whitehead, Pran K. Datta, R. Daniel Beauchamp

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

30 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background Smad proteins play a key role in TGF-β signaling that regulates cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Mice deficient in Smad3 develop colonic adenocarcinoma. Materials and methods We developed a Smad3-deficient colonocyte cell line that was used to study TGF-β-mediated growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis was compared to young adult mouse colonocyte (YAMC) control cells. Growth inhibition was assessed by cell count and (3H)-thymidine incorporation assay. Transcriptional response to TGF-β was measured by transfecting the reporters p3TP-Lux and p(CAGA) 9-MLP-luc. TGF-β-induced apoptosis was assessed using ELISA and Hoechst staining. Mediators of cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis were assayed by Western blot. Results Smad3-/- cells were resistant to TGF-β-mediated growth inhibition compared to control cells. Ninety-eight percent of cell count growth inhibition observed in YAMC cells, while 34% inhibition was observed in Smad3-/- cells after TGF-β treatment. (3H)-thymidine incorporation was inhibited by 61% in YAMC cells, while Smad3-/- cells showed 25% inhibition after TGF-β treatment. Smad3-/- cells were deficient in luciferase reporter induction by TGF-β. TGF-β induced apoptosis 8-fold in YAMC cells, but had no effect on apoptosis in Smad3-/- cells. p21 Cip11 and PAI-1 are induced in YAMC cells by TGF-β, but unchanged in Smad3-/- cells. TGF-β decreases cyclin D1 levels in YAMC cells but does not affect levels in Smad3-/- cells. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the loss of Smad3 contributes to resistance of TGF-β growth inhibition and apoptosis in colonic epithelium. This may represent a mechanism by which cells are able to escape antiproliferative controls and embark on a pathway toward neoplasia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)296-305
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Surgical Research
Volume117
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2004

Fingerprint

Epithelial Cells
Apoptosis
Growth
Young Adult
Thymidine
Cell Count
Smad Proteins
Cyclin D1
Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1
Cell Cycle Checkpoints
Luciferases
Cell Differentiation
Adenocarcinoma
Epithelium
Western Blotting
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Cell Proliferation
Staining and Labeling
Cell Line

Keywords

  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Apoptosis
  • Colonocyte
  • Smad3
  • TGF-β

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery

Cite this

Smad3 has a critical role in TGF-β-mediated growth inhibition and apoptosis in colonic epithelial cells. / Mithani, Suhail K.; Balch, Glen C.; Shiou, Sheng Ru; Whitehead, Robert H.; Datta, Pran K.; Beauchamp, R. Daniel.

In: Journal of Surgical Research, Vol. 117, No. 2, 04.2004, p. 296-305.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Mithani, Suhail K. ; Balch, Glen C. ; Shiou, Sheng Ru ; Whitehead, Robert H. ; Datta, Pran K. ; Beauchamp, R. Daniel. / Smad3 has a critical role in TGF-β-mediated growth inhibition and apoptosis in colonic epithelial cells. In: Journal of Surgical Research. 2004 ; Vol. 117, No. 2. pp. 296-305.
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abstract = "Background Smad proteins play a key role in TGF-β signaling that regulates cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Mice deficient in Smad3 develop colonic adenocarcinoma. Materials and methods We developed a Smad3-deficient colonocyte cell line that was used to study TGF-β-mediated growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis was compared to young adult mouse colonocyte (YAMC) control cells. Growth inhibition was assessed by cell count and (3H)-thymidine incorporation assay. Transcriptional response to TGF-β was measured by transfecting the reporters p3TP-Lux and p(CAGA) 9-MLP-luc. TGF-β-induced apoptosis was assessed using ELISA and Hoechst staining. Mediators of cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis were assayed by Western blot. Results Smad3-/- cells were resistant to TGF-β-mediated growth inhibition compared to control cells. Ninety-eight percent of cell count growth inhibition observed in YAMC cells, while 34{\%} inhibition was observed in Smad3-/- cells after TGF-β treatment. (3H)-thymidine incorporation was inhibited by 61{\%} in YAMC cells, while Smad3-/- cells showed 25{\%} inhibition after TGF-β treatment. Smad3-/- cells were deficient in luciferase reporter induction by TGF-β. TGF-β induced apoptosis 8-fold in YAMC cells, but had no effect on apoptosis in Smad3-/- cells. p21 Cip11 and PAI-1 are induced in YAMC cells by TGF-β, but unchanged in Smad3-/- cells. TGF-β decreases cyclin D1 levels in YAMC cells but does not affect levels in Smad3-/- cells. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the loss of Smad3 contributes to resistance of TGF-β growth inhibition and apoptosis in colonic epithelium. This may represent a mechanism by which cells are able to escape antiproliferative controls and embark on a pathway toward neoplasia.",
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T1 - Smad3 has a critical role in TGF-β-mediated growth inhibition and apoptosis in colonic epithelial cells

AU - Mithani, Suhail K.

AU - Balch, Glen C.

AU - Shiou, Sheng Ru

AU - Whitehead, Robert H.

AU - Datta, Pran K.

AU - Beauchamp, R. Daniel

PY - 2004/4

Y1 - 2004/4

N2 - Background Smad proteins play a key role in TGF-β signaling that regulates cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Mice deficient in Smad3 develop colonic adenocarcinoma. Materials and methods We developed a Smad3-deficient colonocyte cell line that was used to study TGF-β-mediated growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis was compared to young adult mouse colonocyte (YAMC) control cells. Growth inhibition was assessed by cell count and (3H)-thymidine incorporation assay. Transcriptional response to TGF-β was measured by transfecting the reporters p3TP-Lux and p(CAGA) 9-MLP-luc. TGF-β-induced apoptosis was assessed using ELISA and Hoechst staining. Mediators of cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis were assayed by Western blot. Results Smad3-/- cells were resistant to TGF-β-mediated growth inhibition compared to control cells. Ninety-eight percent of cell count growth inhibition observed in YAMC cells, while 34% inhibition was observed in Smad3-/- cells after TGF-β treatment. (3H)-thymidine incorporation was inhibited by 61% in YAMC cells, while Smad3-/- cells showed 25% inhibition after TGF-β treatment. Smad3-/- cells were deficient in luciferase reporter induction by TGF-β. TGF-β induced apoptosis 8-fold in YAMC cells, but had no effect on apoptosis in Smad3-/- cells. p21 Cip11 and PAI-1 are induced in YAMC cells by TGF-β, but unchanged in Smad3-/- cells. TGF-β decreases cyclin D1 levels in YAMC cells but does not affect levels in Smad3-/- cells. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the loss of Smad3 contributes to resistance of TGF-β growth inhibition and apoptosis in colonic epithelium. This may represent a mechanism by which cells are able to escape antiproliferative controls and embark on a pathway toward neoplasia.

AB - Background Smad proteins play a key role in TGF-β signaling that regulates cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Mice deficient in Smad3 develop colonic adenocarcinoma. Materials and methods We developed a Smad3-deficient colonocyte cell line that was used to study TGF-β-mediated growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis was compared to young adult mouse colonocyte (YAMC) control cells. Growth inhibition was assessed by cell count and (3H)-thymidine incorporation assay. Transcriptional response to TGF-β was measured by transfecting the reporters p3TP-Lux and p(CAGA) 9-MLP-luc. TGF-β-induced apoptosis was assessed using ELISA and Hoechst staining. Mediators of cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis were assayed by Western blot. Results Smad3-/- cells were resistant to TGF-β-mediated growth inhibition compared to control cells. Ninety-eight percent of cell count growth inhibition observed in YAMC cells, while 34% inhibition was observed in Smad3-/- cells after TGF-β treatment. (3H)-thymidine incorporation was inhibited by 61% in YAMC cells, while Smad3-/- cells showed 25% inhibition after TGF-β treatment. Smad3-/- cells were deficient in luciferase reporter induction by TGF-β. TGF-β induced apoptosis 8-fold in YAMC cells, but had no effect on apoptosis in Smad3-/- cells. p21 Cip11 and PAI-1 are induced in YAMC cells by TGF-β, but unchanged in Smad3-/- cells. TGF-β decreases cyclin D1 levels in YAMC cells but does not affect levels in Smad3-/- cells. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the loss of Smad3 contributes to resistance of TGF-β growth inhibition and apoptosis in colonic epithelium. This may represent a mechanism by which cells are able to escape antiproliferative controls and embark on a pathway toward neoplasia.

KW - Adenocarcinoma

KW - Apoptosis

KW - Colonocyte

KW - Smad3

KW - TGF-β

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