The prevalence of strongyloidiasis among American veterans of the Vietnam and other wars was evaluated by testing several groups of veterans for serum IgG antibodies against Strongyloides stercoralis antigens, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of 493 Vietnam veterans, eight (1.6%) were seropositive. Of 60 patients with abdominal symptoms and/or elevated eosinophilia (> 0.08 [> 8%]) admitted to the Cincinnati Veterans Administration Medical Center, 12 (5%) were seropositive. Of 147 residents of a Veterans Administration-operated nursing home, six (4%) were seropositive. All infected patients in the latter two groups were World War II veterans. The usefulness of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as a screening tool for at-risk groups is suggested by the finding that S stercoralis larvae were demonstrated in most seropositive patients when a sufficient number of fresh stools were examined.
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