Structural plasticity of malaria dihydroorotate dehydrogenase allows selective binding of diverse chemical scaffolds

Xiaoyi Deng, Ramesh Gujjar, Farah El Mazouni, Werner Kaminsky, Nicholas A. Malmquist, Elizabeth J. Goldsmith, Pradipsinh K. Rathod, Margaret A. Phillips

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

86 Scopus citations

Abstract

Malaria remains a major global health burden and current drug therapies are compromised by resistance. Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (PfDHODH) was validated as a new drug target through the identification of potent and selective triazolopyrimidine-basedDHODHinhibitors with anti-malarial activity in vivo. Here we report x-ray structure determination of PfDHODHbound to three inhibitors from this series, representing the first of the enzyme bound to malaria specific inhibitors. We demonstrate that conformational flexibility results in an unexpected binding mode identifying a new hydrophobic pocket on the enzyme. Importantly this plasticity allows PfDHODH to bind inhibitors from different chemical classes and to accommodate inhibitor modifications during lead optimization, increasing the value of PfDHODHas a drug target. A second discovery, based on small molecule crystallography, is that the triazolopyrimidines populate a resonance form that promotes charge separation. These intrinsic dipoles allow formation of energetically favorable H-bond interactions with the enzyme. The importance of delocalization to binding affinity was supported by site-directed mutagenesis and the demonstration that triazolopyrimidine analogs that lack this intrinsic dipole are inactive. Finally, the PfDHODH-triazolopyrimidine bound structures provide considerable new insight into speciesselective inhibitor binding in this enzyme family. Together, these studies will directly impact efforts to exploit PfDHODH for the development of anti-malarial chemotherapy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)26999-27009
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Volume284
Issue number39
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 25 2009

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ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

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