Surgical Resection of Brain Metastases and the Risk of Leptomeningeal Recurrence in Patients Treated with Stereotactic Radiosurgery

Matthew D. Johnson, Vladimir Avkshtol, Andrew M. Baschnagel, Kurt Meyer, Hong Ye, Inga S. Grills, Peter Y. Chen, Ann Maitz, Rick E. Olson, Daniel R. Pieper, Daniel J. Krauss

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

56 Scopus citations

Abstract

Purpose Recent prospective data have shown that patients with solitary or oligometastatic disease to the brain may be treated with upfront stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) with deferral of whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT). This has been extrapolated to the treatment of patients with resected lesions. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of leptomeningeal disease (LMD) in patients treated with SRS to the postsurgical resection cavity for brain metastases compared with patients treated with SRS to intact metastases. Methods and Materials Four hundred sixty-five patients treated with SRS without upfront WBRT at a single institution were identified; 330 of these with at least 3 months' follow-up were included in this analysis. One hundred twelve patients had undergone surgical resection of at least 1 lesion before SRS compared with 218 treated for intact metastases. Time to LMD and overall survival (OS) time were estimated from date of radiosurgery, and LMD was analyzed by the use of cumulative incidence method with death as a competing risk. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed with competing risk regression to determine whether various clinical factors predicted for LMD. Results With a median follow-up time of 9.0 months, 39 patients (12%) experienced LMD at a median of 6.0 months after SRS. At 1 year, the cumulative incidence of LMD, with death as a competing risk, was 5.2% for the patients without surgical resection versus 16.9% for those treated with surgery (Gray test, P<.01). On multivariate analysis, prior surgical resection (P<.01) and breast cancer primary (P=.03) were significant predictors of LMD development. The median OS times for patients undergoing surgery compared with SRS alone were 12.9 and 10.6 months, respectively (log-rank P=.06). Conclusions In patients undergoing SRS with deferral of upfront WBRT for intracranial metastatic disease, prior surgical resection and breast cancer primary are associated with an increased risk for the development of LMD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)537-543
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics
Volume94
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2016
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiation
  • Oncology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cancer Research

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