Switch-like Control of SREBP-2 Transport Triggered by Small Changes in ER Cholesterol

A Delicate Balance

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

257 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Animal cells control their membrane lipid composition within narrow limits, but the sensing mechanisms underlying this control are largely unknown. Recent studies disclosed a protein network that controls the level of one lipid-cholesterol. This network resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). A key component is Scap, a tetrameric ER membrane protein that binds cholesterol. Cholesterol binding prevents Scap from transporting SREBPs to the Golgi for activation. Using a new method to purify ER membranes from cultured cells, we show that Scap responds cooperatively to ER cholesterol levels. When ER cholesterol exceeds 5% of total ER lipids (molar basis), SREBP-2 transport is abruptly blocked. Transport resumes when ER cholesterol falls below the 5% threshold. The 5% threshold is lowered to 3% when cells overexpress Insig-1, a Scap-binding protein. Cooperative interactions between cholesterol, Scap, and Insig create a sensitive switch that controls the cholesterol composition of cell membranes with remarkable precision.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)512-521
Number of pages10
JournalCell Metabolism
Volume8
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 6 2008

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Endoplasmic Reticulum
Cholesterol
Lipids
Membrane Lipids
Cultured Cells
Carrier Proteins
Membrane Proteins
Cell Membrane
Membranes
Proteins

Keywords

  • CELLBIO
  • HUMDISEASE

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cell Biology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Physiology

Cite this

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title = "Switch-like Control of SREBP-2 Transport Triggered by Small Changes in ER Cholesterol: A Delicate Balance",
abstract = "Animal cells control their membrane lipid composition within narrow limits, but the sensing mechanisms underlying this control are largely unknown. Recent studies disclosed a protein network that controls the level of one lipid-cholesterol. This network resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). A key component is Scap, a tetrameric ER membrane protein that binds cholesterol. Cholesterol binding prevents Scap from transporting SREBPs to the Golgi for activation. Using a new method to purify ER membranes from cultured cells, we show that Scap responds cooperatively to ER cholesterol levels. When ER cholesterol exceeds 5{\%} of total ER lipids (molar basis), SREBP-2 transport is abruptly blocked. Transport resumes when ER cholesterol falls below the 5{\%} threshold. The 5{\%} threshold is lowered to 3{\%} when cells overexpress Insig-1, a Scap-binding protein. Cooperative interactions between cholesterol, Scap, and Insig create a sensitive switch that controls the cholesterol composition of cell membranes with remarkable precision.",
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AU - McDonald, Jeffrey G.

AU - Brown, Michael S.

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N2 - Animal cells control their membrane lipid composition within narrow limits, but the sensing mechanisms underlying this control are largely unknown. Recent studies disclosed a protein network that controls the level of one lipid-cholesterol. This network resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). A key component is Scap, a tetrameric ER membrane protein that binds cholesterol. Cholesterol binding prevents Scap from transporting SREBPs to the Golgi for activation. Using a new method to purify ER membranes from cultured cells, we show that Scap responds cooperatively to ER cholesterol levels. When ER cholesterol exceeds 5% of total ER lipids (molar basis), SREBP-2 transport is abruptly blocked. Transport resumes when ER cholesterol falls below the 5% threshold. The 5% threshold is lowered to 3% when cells overexpress Insig-1, a Scap-binding protein. Cooperative interactions between cholesterol, Scap, and Insig create a sensitive switch that controls the cholesterol composition of cell membranes with remarkable precision.

AB - Animal cells control their membrane lipid composition within narrow limits, but the sensing mechanisms underlying this control are largely unknown. Recent studies disclosed a protein network that controls the level of one lipid-cholesterol. This network resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). A key component is Scap, a tetrameric ER membrane protein that binds cholesterol. Cholesterol binding prevents Scap from transporting SREBPs to the Golgi for activation. Using a new method to purify ER membranes from cultured cells, we show that Scap responds cooperatively to ER cholesterol levels. When ER cholesterol exceeds 5% of total ER lipids (molar basis), SREBP-2 transport is abruptly blocked. Transport resumes when ER cholesterol falls below the 5% threshold. The 5% threshold is lowered to 3% when cells overexpress Insig-1, a Scap-binding protein. Cooperative interactions between cholesterol, Scap, and Insig create a sensitive switch that controls the cholesterol composition of cell membranes with remarkable precision.

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