Synaptic vesicle reuse and its implications

Ege T. Kavalali

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

47 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Presynaptic nerve terminals are exquisite vesicle trafficking machines. Neurotransmission is sustained by constant recycling of a handful of vesicles. Therefore, the rate and the pathway of vesicle trafficking can critically determine synaptic efficacy during activity. However, it is yet unclear whether synaptic vesicle recycling becomes rate limiting on a rapid time scale during physiologically relevant forms of activity in the brain. Several forms of synaptic plasticity arise from persistent alterations in the dynamics of vesicle trafficking in presynaptic terminals. What makes presynaptic forms of plasticity particularly interesting is that they not only increase or decrease the amplitude of synaptic responses but also cause frequency-dependent changes in neurotransmission. In this manner, plasticity can alter the information coding in neural circuits beyond simple scaling of synaptic responses. However, studying the synaptic vesicle cycle beyond exocytosis and endocytosis has been difficult. In the past decade, several methods have been developed to infer vesicles' trajectory during their cycle in the synapse. Nevertheless, several questions remain. A better understanding of the role of synaptic vesicle trafficking in neurotransmission will require novel approaches that either combine existing methods or the development of new methods to trace vesicles during their cycle. Recent evidence suggests that various presynaptic proteins involved in the synaptic function and homeostasis are either mutated or altered in their expression in several neurological and psychiatric disorders. Therefore, elucidation of the mechanisms that underlie the synaptic vesicle cycle may reveal novel therapeutic targets for brain disorders.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)57-66
Number of pages10
JournalNeuroscientist
Volume12
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2006

Fingerprint

Synaptic Vesicles
Synaptic Transmission
Presynaptic Terminals
Neuronal Plasticity
Exocytosis
Recycling
Brain Diseases
Endocytosis
Nervous System Diseases
Synapses
Psychiatry
Homeostasis
Brain
Proteins
Therapeutics

Keywords

  • Endocytosis
  • FM1-43
  • Lysosomal storage disorders
  • Neurotransmission
  • Schizophrenia
  • Synaptic vesicle recycling
  • Synaptophluorin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)

Cite this

Synaptic vesicle reuse and its implications. / Kavalali, Ege T.

In: Neuroscientist, Vol. 12, No. 1, 02.2006, p. 57-66.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kavalali, Ege T. / Synaptic vesicle reuse and its implications. In: Neuroscientist. 2006 ; Vol. 12, No. 1. pp. 57-66.
@article{286b139a7be44603ad00c0abb4954f1c,
title = "Synaptic vesicle reuse and its implications",
abstract = "Presynaptic nerve terminals are exquisite vesicle trafficking machines. Neurotransmission is sustained by constant recycling of a handful of vesicles. Therefore, the rate and the pathway of vesicle trafficking can critically determine synaptic efficacy during activity. However, it is yet unclear whether synaptic vesicle recycling becomes rate limiting on a rapid time scale during physiologically relevant forms of activity in the brain. Several forms of synaptic plasticity arise from persistent alterations in the dynamics of vesicle trafficking in presynaptic terminals. What makes presynaptic forms of plasticity particularly interesting is that they not only increase or decrease the amplitude of synaptic responses but also cause frequency-dependent changes in neurotransmission. In this manner, plasticity can alter the information coding in neural circuits beyond simple scaling of synaptic responses. However, studying the synaptic vesicle cycle beyond exocytosis and endocytosis has been difficult. In the past decade, several methods have been developed to infer vesicles' trajectory during their cycle in the synapse. Nevertheless, several questions remain. A better understanding of the role of synaptic vesicle trafficking in neurotransmission will require novel approaches that either combine existing methods or the development of new methods to trace vesicles during their cycle. Recent evidence suggests that various presynaptic proteins involved in the synaptic function and homeostasis are either mutated or altered in their expression in several neurological and psychiatric disorders. Therefore, elucidation of the mechanisms that underlie the synaptic vesicle cycle may reveal novel therapeutic targets for brain disorders.",
keywords = "Endocytosis, FM1-43, Lysosomal storage disorders, Neurotransmission, Schizophrenia, Synaptic vesicle recycling, Synaptophluorin",
author = "Kavalali, {Ege T.}",
year = "2006",
month = "2",
doi = "10.1177/1073858405281852",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "12",
pages = "57--66",
journal = "Neuroscientist",
issn = "1073-8584",
publisher = "SAGE Publications Inc.",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Synaptic vesicle reuse and its implications

AU - Kavalali, Ege T.

PY - 2006/2

Y1 - 2006/2

N2 - Presynaptic nerve terminals are exquisite vesicle trafficking machines. Neurotransmission is sustained by constant recycling of a handful of vesicles. Therefore, the rate and the pathway of vesicle trafficking can critically determine synaptic efficacy during activity. However, it is yet unclear whether synaptic vesicle recycling becomes rate limiting on a rapid time scale during physiologically relevant forms of activity in the brain. Several forms of synaptic plasticity arise from persistent alterations in the dynamics of vesicle trafficking in presynaptic terminals. What makes presynaptic forms of plasticity particularly interesting is that they not only increase or decrease the amplitude of synaptic responses but also cause frequency-dependent changes in neurotransmission. In this manner, plasticity can alter the information coding in neural circuits beyond simple scaling of synaptic responses. However, studying the synaptic vesicle cycle beyond exocytosis and endocytosis has been difficult. In the past decade, several methods have been developed to infer vesicles' trajectory during their cycle in the synapse. Nevertheless, several questions remain. A better understanding of the role of synaptic vesicle trafficking in neurotransmission will require novel approaches that either combine existing methods or the development of new methods to trace vesicles during their cycle. Recent evidence suggests that various presynaptic proteins involved in the synaptic function and homeostasis are either mutated or altered in their expression in several neurological and psychiatric disorders. Therefore, elucidation of the mechanisms that underlie the synaptic vesicle cycle may reveal novel therapeutic targets for brain disorders.

AB - Presynaptic nerve terminals are exquisite vesicle trafficking machines. Neurotransmission is sustained by constant recycling of a handful of vesicles. Therefore, the rate and the pathway of vesicle trafficking can critically determine synaptic efficacy during activity. However, it is yet unclear whether synaptic vesicle recycling becomes rate limiting on a rapid time scale during physiologically relevant forms of activity in the brain. Several forms of synaptic plasticity arise from persistent alterations in the dynamics of vesicle trafficking in presynaptic terminals. What makes presynaptic forms of plasticity particularly interesting is that they not only increase or decrease the amplitude of synaptic responses but also cause frequency-dependent changes in neurotransmission. In this manner, plasticity can alter the information coding in neural circuits beyond simple scaling of synaptic responses. However, studying the synaptic vesicle cycle beyond exocytosis and endocytosis has been difficult. In the past decade, several methods have been developed to infer vesicles' trajectory during their cycle in the synapse. Nevertheless, several questions remain. A better understanding of the role of synaptic vesicle trafficking in neurotransmission will require novel approaches that either combine existing methods or the development of new methods to trace vesicles during their cycle. Recent evidence suggests that various presynaptic proteins involved in the synaptic function and homeostasis are either mutated or altered in their expression in several neurological and psychiatric disorders. Therefore, elucidation of the mechanisms that underlie the synaptic vesicle cycle may reveal novel therapeutic targets for brain disorders.

KW - Endocytosis

KW - FM1-43

KW - Lysosomal storage disorders

KW - Neurotransmission

KW - Schizophrenia

KW - Synaptic vesicle recycling

KW - Synaptophluorin

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=31044443864&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=31044443864&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1177/1073858405281852

DO - 10.1177/1073858405281852

M3 - Article

C2 - 16394193

AN - SCOPUS:31044443864

VL - 12

SP - 57

EP - 66

JO - Neuroscientist

JF - Neuroscientist

SN - 1073-8584

IS - 1

ER -