The current studies were undertaken to characterize the localization and regulation of cholesterol synthesis and acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase activity in rat intestinal crypt and villus cells. Both parameters were determined in groups of animals with widely varying sterol fluxes across the intestinal mucosa. In animals on control diet the rates of cholesterol synthesis, measured by the incorporation of [3H]water per mg of protein, were similar along the villus/crypt axis in the jejunum, whereas in the ileum, villus cells were significantly more active than crypt cells. In both areas, however, the majority of total synthetic activity was found in cells from the crypts and lower villi. In contrast, the highest specific and total acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase activity was recovered in the villus cells of the jejunum and ileum. Dietary cholesterol did not affect sterol synthesis in any of the cell fractions but increased acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase activity approximately 2-fold in jejunal cell fractions. Inhibition of cholesterol absorption or sequestration of intestinal bile acids stimulated sterol synthetic activity up to 7-fold, and this occurred mainly in the lower villus and crypt cells in both jejunum and ileum. An increased demand for lipoprotein cholesterol, generated by triglyceride feeding, similarly was associated with enhanced synthetic rates. However, unlike cholesterol feeding, these manipulations did not increase acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase activity in any of the villus cell fractions. These studies suggest, therefore, that the intracellular pools of cholesterol that regulate the rate of cholesterol synthesis and the rate of cholesterol esterification are functionally distinct.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Journal of Biological Chemistry|
|State||Published - 1983|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology