Systematic Review for the 2018 AHA/ACC/AACVPR/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/ADA/AGS/APhA/ASPC/NLA/PCNA Guideline on the Management of Blood Cholesterol: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines

Peter W.F. Wilson, Tamar S. Polonsky, Michael D. Miedema, Amit Khera, Andrzej S. Kosinski, Jeffrey T. Kuvin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: The 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines for the treatment of blood cholesterol found little evidence to support the use of nonstatin lipid-modifying medications to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events. Since publication of these guidelines, multiple randomized controlled trials evaluating nonstatin lipid-modifying medications have been published. Methods: We performed a systematic review to assess the magnitude of benefit and/or harm from additional lipid-modifying therapies compared with statins alone in individuals with known ASCVD or at high risk of ASCVD. We included data from randomized controlled trials with a sample size of >1,000 patients and designed for follow-up >1 year. We performed a comprehensive literature search and identified 10 randomized controlled trials for intensive review, including trials evaluating ezetimibe, niacin, cholesterol-ester transfer protein inhibitors, and PCSK9 inhibitors. The prespecified primary outcome for this review was a composite of fatal cardiovascular events, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and nonfatal stroke. Results: The cardiovascular benefit of nonstatin lipid-modifying therapies varied significantly according to the class of medication. There was evidence for reduced ASCVD morbidity with ezetimibe and 2 PSCK9 inhibitors. Reduced ASCVD mortality rate was reported for 1 PCSK9 inhibitor. The use of ezetimibe/simvastatin versus simvastatin in IMPROVE-IT (Improved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial) reduced the primary outcome by 1.8% over 7 years (hazard ratio: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.84–0.96], 7-year number needed to treat: 56). The PSCK9 inhibitor evolocumab in the FOURIER study (Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research with PCSK9 Inhibition in Subjects with Elevated Risk) decreased the primary outcome by 1.5% over 2.2 years (hazard ratio: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.73–0.88; 2.2=year number needed to treat: 67). In ODYSSEY OUTCOMES (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab), alirocumab reduced the primary outcome by 1.6% over 2.8 years (hazard ratio: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.79–0.93; 2.8-year number needed to treat: 63). For ezetimibe and the PSCK9 inhibitors, rates of musculoskeletal, neurocognitive, gastrointestinal, or other adverse event risks did not differ between the treatment and control groups. For patients at high risk of ASCVD already on background statin therapy, there was minimal evidence for improved ASCVD risk or adverse events with cholesterol-ester transfer protein inhibitors. There was no evidence of benefit for the addition of niacin to statin therapy. Direct comparisons of the results of the 10 randomized controlled trials were limited by significant differences in sample size, duration of follow-up, and reported primary outcomes. Conclusions: In a systematic review of the evidence for adding nonstatin lipid-modifying therapies to statins to reduce ASCVD risk, we found evidence of benefit for ezetimibe and PCSK9 inhibitors but not for niacin or cholesterol-ester transfer protein inhibitors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3210-3227
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of the American College of Cardiology
Volume73
Issue number24
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 25 2019

Fingerprint

Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen
Advisory Committees
Practice Guidelines
Cardiovascular Diseases
Cholesterol
Guidelines
Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors
Cholesterol Ester Transfer Proteins
Numbers Needed To Treat
Niacin
Lipids
Randomized Controlled Trials
Simvastatin
Therapeutics
Sample Size
Acute Coronary Syndrome
Publications
Stroke
Myocardial Infarction
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)

Keywords

  • ACC/AHA Clinical Practice Guidelines
  • ACC/AHA Evidence Review Committee
  • biomarkers
  • cardiovascular disease
  • cholesterol
  • coronary artery calcium score
  • diabetes mellitus
  • drug therapy
  • ezetimibe
  • Guidelines
  • hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors/statins
  • hypercholesterolemia
  • LDL-cholesterol
  • lipids
  • patient compliance
  • pharmacological
  • primary prevention
  • proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitor (PCSK9) inhibitors
  • risk assessment
  • risk reduction discussion
  • risk treatment discussion
  • secondary prevention

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

@article{1040dc1671794a5e9dc39a10516a435a,
title = "Systematic Review for the 2018 AHA/ACC/AACVPR/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/ADA/AGS/APhA/ASPC/NLA/PCNA Guideline on the Management of Blood Cholesterol: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines",
abstract = "Background: The 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines for the treatment of blood cholesterol found little evidence to support the use of nonstatin lipid-modifying medications to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events. Since publication of these guidelines, multiple randomized controlled trials evaluating nonstatin lipid-modifying medications have been published. Methods: We performed a systematic review to assess the magnitude of benefit and/or harm from additional lipid-modifying therapies compared with statins alone in individuals with known ASCVD or at high risk of ASCVD. We included data from randomized controlled trials with a sample size of >1,000 patients and designed for follow-up >1 year. We performed a comprehensive literature search and identified 10 randomized controlled trials for intensive review, including trials evaluating ezetimibe, niacin, cholesterol-ester transfer protein inhibitors, and PCSK9 inhibitors. The prespecified primary outcome for this review was a composite of fatal cardiovascular events, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and nonfatal stroke. Results: The cardiovascular benefit of nonstatin lipid-modifying therapies varied significantly according to the class of medication. There was evidence for reduced ASCVD morbidity with ezetimibe and 2 PSCK9 inhibitors. Reduced ASCVD mortality rate was reported for 1 PCSK9 inhibitor. The use of ezetimibe/simvastatin versus simvastatin in IMPROVE-IT (Improved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial) reduced the primary outcome by 1.8{\%} over 7 years (hazard ratio: 0.90; 95{\%} CI: 0.84–0.96], 7-year number needed to treat: 56). The PSCK9 inhibitor evolocumab in the FOURIER study (Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research with PCSK9 Inhibition in Subjects with Elevated Risk) decreased the primary outcome by 1.5{\%} over 2.2 years (hazard ratio: 0.80; 95{\%} CI: 0.73–0.88; 2.2=year number needed to treat: 67). In ODYSSEY OUTCOMES (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab), alirocumab reduced the primary outcome by 1.6{\%} over 2.8 years (hazard ratio: 0.86; 95{\%} CI: 0.79–0.93; 2.8-year number needed to treat: 63). For ezetimibe and the PSCK9 inhibitors, rates of musculoskeletal, neurocognitive, gastrointestinal, or other adverse event risks did not differ between the treatment and control groups. For patients at high risk of ASCVD already on background statin therapy, there was minimal evidence for improved ASCVD risk or adverse events with cholesterol-ester transfer protein inhibitors. There was no evidence of benefit for the addition of niacin to statin therapy. Direct comparisons of the results of the 10 randomized controlled trials were limited by significant differences in sample size, duration of follow-up, and reported primary outcomes. Conclusions: In a systematic review of the evidence for adding nonstatin lipid-modifying therapies to statins to reduce ASCVD risk, we found evidence of benefit for ezetimibe and PCSK9 inhibitors but not for niacin or cholesterol-ester transfer protein inhibitors.",
keywords = "ACC/AHA Clinical Practice Guidelines, ACC/AHA Evidence Review Committee, biomarkers, cardiovascular disease, cholesterol, coronary artery calcium score, diabetes mellitus, drug therapy, ezetimibe, Guidelines, hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors/statins, hypercholesterolemia, LDL-cholesterol, lipids, patient compliance, pharmacological, primary prevention, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitor (PCSK9) inhibitors, risk assessment, risk reduction discussion, risk treatment discussion, secondary prevention",
author = "Wilson, {Peter W.F.} and Polonsky, {Tamar S.} and Miedema, {Michael D.} and Amit Khera and Kosinski, {Andrzej S.} and Kuvin, {Jeffrey T.}",
year = "2019",
month = "6",
day = "25",
doi = "10.1016/j.jacc.2018.11.004",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "73",
pages = "3210--3227",
journal = "Journal of the American College of Cardiology",
issn = "0735-1097",
publisher = "Elsevier USA",
number = "24",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Systematic Review for the 2018 AHA/ACC/AACVPR/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/ADA/AGS/APhA/ASPC/NLA/PCNA Guideline on the Management of Blood Cholesterol

T2 - A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines

AU - Wilson, Peter W.F.

AU - Polonsky, Tamar S.

AU - Miedema, Michael D.

AU - Khera, Amit

AU - Kosinski, Andrzej S.

AU - Kuvin, Jeffrey T.

PY - 2019/6/25

Y1 - 2019/6/25

N2 - Background: The 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines for the treatment of blood cholesterol found little evidence to support the use of nonstatin lipid-modifying medications to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events. Since publication of these guidelines, multiple randomized controlled trials evaluating nonstatin lipid-modifying medications have been published. Methods: We performed a systematic review to assess the magnitude of benefit and/or harm from additional lipid-modifying therapies compared with statins alone in individuals with known ASCVD or at high risk of ASCVD. We included data from randomized controlled trials with a sample size of >1,000 patients and designed for follow-up >1 year. We performed a comprehensive literature search and identified 10 randomized controlled trials for intensive review, including trials evaluating ezetimibe, niacin, cholesterol-ester transfer protein inhibitors, and PCSK9 inhibitors. The prespecified primary outcome for this review was a composite of fatal cardiovascular events, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and nonfatal stroke. Results: The cardiovascular benefit of nonstatin lipid-modifying therapies varied significantly according to the class of medication. There was evidence for reduced ASCVD morbidity with ezetimibe and 2 PSCK9 inhibitors. Reduced ASCVD mortality rate was reported for 1 PCSK9 inhibitor. The use of ezetimibe/simvastatin versus simvastatin in IMPROVE-IT (Improved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial) reduced the primary outcome by 1.8% over 7 years (hazard ratio: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.84–0.96], 7-year number needed to treat: 56). The PSCK9 inhibitor evolocumab in the FOURIER study (Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research with PCSK9 Inhibition in Subjects with Elevated Risk) decreased the primary outcome by 1.5% over 2.2 years (hazard ratio: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.73–0.88; 2.2=year number needed to treat: 67). In ODYSSEY OUTCOMES (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab), alirocumab reduced the primary outcome by 1.6% over 2.8 years (hazard ratio: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.79–0.93; 2.8-year number needed to treat: 63). For ezetimibe and the PSCK9 inhibitors, rates of musculoskeletal, neurocognitive, gastrointestinal, or other adverse event risks did not differ between the treatment and control groups. For patients at high risk of ASCVD already on background statin therapy, there was minimal evidence for improved ASCVD risk or adverse events with cholesterol-ester transfer protein inhibitors. There was no evidence of benefit for the addition of niacin to statin therapy. Direct comparisons of the results of the 10 randomized controlled trials were limited by significant differences in sample size, duration of follow-up, and reported primary outcomes. Conclusions: In a systematic review of the evidence for adding nonstatin lipid-modifying therapies to statins to reduce ASCVD risk, we found evidence of benefit for ezetimibe and PCSK9 inhibitors but not for niacin or cholesterol-ester transfer protein inhibitors.

AB - Background: The 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines for the treatment of blood cholesterol found little evidence to support the use of nonstatin lipid-modifying medications to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events. Since publication of these guidelines, multiple randomized controlled trials evaluating nonstatin lipid-modifying medications have been published. Methods: We performed a systematic review to assess the magnitude of benefit and/or harm from additional lipid-modifying therapies compared with statins alone in individuals with known ASCVD or at high risk of ASCVD. We included data from randomized controlled trials with a sample size of >1,000 patients and designed for follow-up >1 year. We performed a comprehensive literature search and identified 10 randomized controlled trials for intensive review, including trials evaluating ezetimibe, niacin, cholesterol-ester transfer protein inhibitors, and PCSK9 inhibitors. The prespecified primary outcome for this review was a composite of fatal cardiovascular events, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and nonfatal stroke. Results: The cardiovascular benefit of nonstatin lipid-modifying therapies varied significantly according to the class of medication. There was evidence for reduced ASCVD morbidity with ezetimibe and 2 PSCK9 inhibitors. Reduced ASCVD mortality rate was reported for 1 PCSK9 inhibitor. The use of ezetimibe/simvastatin versus simvastatin in IMPROVE-IT (Improved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial) reduced the primary outcome by 1.8% over 7 years (hazard ratio: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.84–0.96], 7-year number needed to treat: 56). The PSCK9 inhibitor evolocumab in the FOURIER study (Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research with PCSK9 Inhibition in Subjects with Elevated Risk) decreased the primary outcome by 1.5% over 2.2 years (hazard ratio: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.73–0.88; 2.2=year number needed to treat: 67). In ODYSSEY OUTCOMES (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab), alirocumab reduced the primary outcome by 1.6% over 2.8 years (hazard ratio: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.79–0.93; 2.8-year number needed to treat: 63). For ezetimibe and the PSCK9 inhibitors, rates of musculoskeletal, neurocognitive, gastrointestinal, or other adverse event risks did not differ between the treatment and control groups. For patients at high risk of ASCVD already on background statin therapy, there was minimal evidence for improved ASCVD risk or adverse events with cholesterol-ester transfer protein inhibitors. There was no evidence of benefit for the addition of niacin to statin therapy. Direct comparisons of the results of the 10 randomized controlled trials were limited by significant differences in sample size, duration of follow-up, and reported primary outcomes. Conclusions: In a systematic review of the evidence for adding nonstatin lipid-modifying therapies to statins to reduce ASCVD risk, we found evidence of benefit for ezetimibe and PCSK9 inhibitors but not for niacin or cholesterol-ester transfer protein inhibitors.

KW - ACC/AHA Clinical Practice Guidelines

KW - ACC/AHA Evidence Review Committee

KW - biomarkers

KW - cardiovascular disease

KW - cholesterol

KW - coronary artery calcium score

KW - diabetes mellitus

KW - drug therapy

KW - ezetimibe

KW - Guidelines

KW - hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors/statins

KW - hypercholesterolemia

KW - LDL-cholesterol

KW - lipids

KW - patient compliance

KW - pharmacological

KW - primary prevention

KW - proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitor (PCSK9) inhibitors

KW - risk assessment

KW - risk reduction discussion

KW - risk treatment discussion

KW - secondary prevention

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U2 - 10.1016/j.jacc.2018.11.004

DO - 10.1016/j.jacc.2018.11.004

M3 - Article

C2 - 30423394

AN - SCOPUS:85067042721

VL - 73

SP - 3210

EP - 3227

JO - Journal of the American College of Cardiology

JF - Journal of the American College of Cardiology

SN - 0735-1097

IS - 24

ER -