Purpose: Persistent androgen receptor (AR) signaling drives castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and confers resistance to AR-targeting therapies. Novel therapeutic strategies to overcome this are urgently required. We evaluated how bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) protein inhibitors (BETi) abrogate aberrant AR signaling in CRPC. Experimental Design: We determined associations between BET expression, AR-driven transcription, and patient outcome; and the effect and mechanism by which chemical BETi (JQ1 and GSK1210151A; I-BET151) and BET family protein knockdown regulates AR-V7 expression and AR signaling in prostate cancer models. Results: Nuclear BRD4 protein expression increases significantly (P 0.01) with castration resistance in same patient treatment-na€ve (median H-score; interquartile range: 100; 100–170) and CRPC (150; 110–200) biopsies, with higher expression at diagnosis associating with worse outcome (HR, 3.25; 95% CI, 1.50–7.01; P 0.001). BRD2, BRD3, and BRD4 RNA expression in CRPC biopsies correlates with AR-driven transcription (all P 0.001). Chemical BETi, and combined BET family protein knockdown, reduce AR-V7 expression and AR signaling. This was not recapitulated by C-MYC knockdown. In addition, we show that BETi regulates RNA processing thereby reducing alternative splicing and AR-V7 expression. Furthermore, BETi reduce growth of prostate cancer cells and patient-derived organoids with known AR mutations, AR amplification and AR-V7 expression. Finally, BETi, unlike enzalutamide, decreases persistent AR signaling and growth (P 0.001) of a patient-derived xenograft model of CRPC with AR amplification and AR-V7 expression. Conclusions: BETi merit clinical evaluation as inhibitors of AR splicing and function, with trials demonstrating their blockade in proof-of-mechanism pharmacodynamic studies.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research