Teratocarcinosarcoma-Like and Adamantinoma-Like Head and Neck Neoplasms Harboring NAB2::STAT6: Unusual Variants of Solitary Fibrous Tumor or Novel Tumor Entities?

Todd M. Stevens, Lisa M. Rooper, Carlos E. Bacchi, Igor Lima Fernandes, Cristina R. Antonescu, Jeffrey Gagan, Justin Avery Bishop

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The archetypal solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) features fibroblastic cells with varying cellularity without any particular architectural arrangement in a collagenous matrix, with staghorn vessels, CD34 and STAT6 expression, and NAB2::STAT6. To date, this fusion is thought to be specific for SFT. With more routine use of fusion gene panels, the histologic diversity of NAB2::STAT6-positive tumors is increasingly appreciated. Here we present four head and neck tumors harboring NAB2::STAT6 but exhibiting remarkably unusual morphologic features for SFT. All cases were pulled from the authors’ consultation files. Immunohistochemistry was performed, along with targeted RNA sequencing in all cases, plus DNA next-generation sequencing on two. The cases arose in the nasal cavity (n = 2), retromolar trigone (n = 1) and parapharynx (n = 1), in patients ranging from 39 to 54 (mean, 44). Both nasal cases were biphasic, with a variably cellular collagenized stroma that resembled SFT but also interspersed malignant epithelial and neuroepithelial nests. One of the nasal cases also exhibited overt rhabdomyoblastic differentiation within both components. The two non-nasal cases were comprised of plump, epithelioid cells that were diffusely positive for pan-cytokeratin. One of these cases had prominent cystic change lined by overtly squamous epithelium. STAT6 immunostaining was positive in all cases, although the epithelial/neuroepithelial nests in the sinonasal cases were negative. All cases were confirmed to harbor NAB2::STAT6 by RNA sequencing. The two sinonasal cases were also found to harbor oncogenic mutations. The presented cases highlight a much broader histologic diversity than previously known for neoplasms with NAB2::STAT6. The biphasic nasal cases closely resemble teratocarcinosarcoma, while the epithelioid, cytokeratin-positive cases could be conceptualized as “adamantinoma-like,” to borrow terminology already in use for Ewing sarcomas with complex epithelial differentiation. To identify similar cases, pathologists should have a low threshold for using STAT6 immunohistochemistry on any difficult-to-characterize head and neck tumor.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalHead and Neck Pathology
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2022

Keywords

  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Molecular diagnosis
  • NAB2::STAT6
  • Solitary fibrous tumor
  • STAT6
  • Teratocarcinosarcoma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • Oncology

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