During a 2-year period 5 men positive for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) presented with 6 testis tumors among a total of 3,015 men seen at our hospital acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) clinic. This testis tumor incidence of 0.2% is 57 times that of the United States average of 3.5 cases per 100,000 men. Two patients were only HIV positive and 3 others already had AIDS-related complex for 2 to 15 months at the time of tumor diagnosis. Tumor histology was mixed germ cell tumor in 4 patients, pure seminoma in 1 and Burkitt's lymphoma in 1. Patients underwent routine staging evaluations. Three patients had low stage mixed germ cell tumor (clinical stage 1 or 2A) and underwent retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy, which revealed pathological stage 1 or 2A disease in 1 and 2, respectively. These patients did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. Two patients had advanced mixed germ cell tumor (clinical stage 2C) or Burkitt's lymphoma (clinical stage 4) and received combination chemotherapy from the onset. Outcome was evaluated with regard to progression of HIV disease and tumor status. The 2 patients who were only HIV positive remained so for 9 and 48 months. The 3 patients with AIDS-related complex had progression to AIDS within 1 to 9 months and 2 of these patients died 1 1/2 and 7 months after tumor diagnosis. All 3 patients with resected low stage disease had tumor recurrence within 1 to 9 months and were begun on platinum-based combination chemotherapy. The risk of false low clinical staging and early tumor progression may be higher in HIV positive men than in other testis tumor patients. Patient ability to tolerate chemotherapy and to obtain a satisfactory tumor response appeared to be primarily related to lack of progression of HIV disease to frank AIDS.
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