Background: Alignment affects gait of individuals with transtibial prostheses. Sagittal and coronal alignment changes of the transtibial prostheses were demonstrated to affect socket reaction moments. However, the effects of transverse alignment changes on the socket reaction moments are not known. Research question: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of transverse alignment changes on the socket reaction moments and temporal-spatial parameters of gait in transtibial prostheses. Methods: The effects of transverse prosthetic alignment changes (i.e. 10° and 5° of internal and external rotations: toe-in and toe-out of the foot relative to the socket from a baseline alignment) on the sagittal and coronal socket reaction moments and temporal-spatial parameters (gait speed, cadence and step width) while walking in 9 individuals with transtibial amputation were investigated using an instrumented prosthetic pyramid adaptor and a three-dimentional (3D) motion capture system. Results: The transverse alignment changes demonstrated significant effects on the socket reaction moments in the coronal plane at 5% (P = 0.04), 20% (P = 0.04) and 75% (P = 0.0001) of stance phase. No significant effects were found in the socket reaction moments in the sagittal plane and the temporal-spatial parameters. The internal and external rotations of the prosthetic feet may have opposite effect in early and mid- to late-stance potentially due to changes in the spatial position of the heel (rearfoot) and toe (forefoot) of the prosthetic foot relative to the socket. Significance: Transverse alignment of the transtibial prostheses should be tuned not only considering the symmetry in toe-out angles of the feet, but also considering the potential effects of transverse alignment changes that may affect the coronal socket reaction moments.
- Foot progression angle
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine