Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion for patients with malignant peritoneal mesothelioma has resulted in improved disease control and increased survival. Despite these results, there are significant perioperative risks associated with this aggressive procedure that necessitate consideration of prognostic markers during patient selection. The molecular pathogenesis of peritoneal mesothelioma remains relatively unknown, but extrapolation of findings from their pleural counterpart would suggest frequent alterations in CDKN2A, NF2, and BAP1. Homozygous deletions in CDKN2A portend a worse overall survival in peritoneal mesothelioma. However, the prevalence and prognostic significance of NF2 and BAP1 abnormalities has not been studied. Dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization using CDKN2A and NF2 locus-specific probes and BAP1 immunohistochemistry identified homozygous CDKN2A deletions (n=25, 29%), hemizygous NF2 loss (n=30, 35%), and/or loss of BAP1 protein expression (n=49, 57%) in 68 of 86 (79%) peritoneal mesotheliomas. Homozygous CDKN2A deletions or hemizygous NF2 loss correlated with shorter progression-free survival (P<0.02) and poor overall survival (P<0.03). Moreover, the significance of these findings was cumulative. Patients harboring both homozygous CDKN2A deletions and hemizygous NF2 loss had a 2-year progression-free survival rate of 9% with a median of 6 months (P<0.01) and overall survival rate of 18% with a median of 8 months (P<0.01). By multivariate analysis, combined homozygous CDKN2A deletions and hemizygous NF2 loss was a negative prognostic factor for both progression-free survival and overall survival, independent of patient age, peritoneal cancer index, completeness of cytoreduction, and extent of invasion. In contrast, loss of BAP1 was not associated with clinical outcome. In summary, homozygous deletions in CDKN2A and hemizygous loss of NF2 as detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization would confer a poor clinical outcome and may guide future treatment decisions for patients with peritoneal mesothelioma.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine