Time course of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide diaphorase staining after renal radiofrequency ablation influences viability assessment

J. Kyle Anderson, Meredith Baker, Omar Jaffers, Margaret S Pearle, Guy L. Lindberg, Jeffrey A Cadeddu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Background and Purpose: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) diaphorase staining has been used to confirm cell viability or death after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of renal tissue. The time course over which NADH staining status converts from viable to non-viable after a lethal insult lias not been defined for renal RFA, but the change may not be immediate. Our objective was to assess porcine renal tissue for viability using NADH diaphorase staining at various times after RFA. Materials and Methods: Seven pigs underwent monopolar RFA of both kidneys followed by needle biopsy of the ablation zone before and immediately after ablation and at 15-minute intervals thereafter. Initially, a single kidney was treated, and the contralateral kidney was treated 2 weeks later. Biopsies were taken from untreated renal parenchyma in a similar time course after nephrectomy to examine the effect of ischemia. All biopsy specimens, as well as representative sections of the ablation zone, were subjected to NADH staining and reviewed by a pathologist who was blinded to the tissue treatment. Results: Most of the post-RFA biopsy specimens (86%) showed non-viable tissue. However, 14% of the specimens revealed viable tissue as late as 150 minutes after RFA. Therefore, none were positive. In the nephrectomy parenchyma, 92% of the biopsy specimens showed viable tissue as late as 4 hours after the onset of ischemia. Conclusion: Staining for NADH can establish tissue non-viability after RFA, but the timing of staining after treatment must be considered when interpreting results to avoid false positive tests. Tissue that is apparently viable by NADH staining within 2.5 hours of RFA may in fact have been ablated.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)223-227
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Endourology
Volume21
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2007

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NAD
Staining and Labeling
Kidney
Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase
Biopsy
Tissue Survival
Nephrectomy
Swine
Ischemia
Needle Biopsy
Cell Survival
Cell Death
Therapeutics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology

Cite this

Time course of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide diaphorase staining after renal radiofrequency ablation influences viability assessment. / Anderson, J. Kyle; Baker, Meredith; Jaffers, Omar; Pearle, Margaret S; Lindberg, Guy L.; Cadeddu, Jeffrey A.

In: Journal of Endourology, Vol. 21, No. 2, 02.2007, p. 223-227.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Background and Purpose: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) diaphorase staining has been used to confirm cell viability or death after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of renal tissue. The time course over which NADH staining status converts from viable to non-viable after a lethal insult lias not been defined for renal RFA, but the change may not be immediate. Our objective was to assess porcine renal tissue for viability using NADH diaphorase staining at various times after RFA. Materials and Methods: Seven pigs underwent monopolar RFA of both kidneys followed by needle biopsy of the ablation zone before and immediately after ablation and at 15-minute intervals thereafter. Initially, a single kidney was treated, and the contralateral kidney was treated 2 weeks later. Biopsies were taken from untreated renal parenchyma in a similar time course after nephrectomy to examine the effect of ischemia. All biopsy specimens, as well as representative sections of the ablation zone, were subjected to NADH staining and reviewed by a pathologist who was blinded to the tissue treatment. Results: Most of the post-RFA biopsy specimens (86{\%}) showed non-viable tissue. However, 14{\%} of the specimens revealed viable tissue as late as 150 minutes after RFA. Therefore, none were positive. In the nephrectomy parenchyma, 92{\%} of the biopsy specimens showed viable tissue as late as 4 hours after the onset of ischemia. Conclusion: Staining for NADH can establish tissue non-viability after RFA, but the timing of staining after treatment must be considered when interpreting results to avoid false positive tests. Tissue that is apparently viable by NADH staining within 2.5 hours of RFA may in fact have been ablated.",
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