TIMER: A web server for comprehensive analysis of tumor-infiltrating immune cells

Taiwen Li, Jingyu Fan, Binbin Wang, Nicole Traugh, Qianming Chen, Jun S. Liu, Bo Li, X. Shirley Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

150 Scopus citations


Recent clinical successes of cancer immunotherapy necessitate the investigation of the interaction between malignant cells and the host immune system. However, elucidation of complex tumor-immune interactions presents major computational and experimental challenges. Here, we present Tumor Immune Estimation Resource (TIMER; cistrome.shinyapps. io/timer) to comprehensively investigate molecular characterization of tumor-immune interactions. Levels of six tumor-infiltrating immune subsets are precalculated for 10, 897 tumors from 32 cancer types. TIMER provides 6 major analytic modules that allow users to interactively explore the associations between immune infiltrates and a wide spectrum of factors, including gene expression, clinical outcomes, somatic mutations, and somatic copy number alterations. TIMER provides a user-friendly web interface for dynamic analysis and visualization of these associations, which will be of broad utilities to cancer researchers. Cancer Res; 77(21); e108-10.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e108-e110
JournalCancer Research
Issue number21
StatePublished - Nov 1 2017


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

Cite this

Li, T., Fan, J., Wang, B., Traugh, N., Chen, Q., Liu, J. S., Li, B., & Liu, X. S. (2017). TIMER: A web server for comprehensive analysis of tumor-infiltrating immune cells. Cancer Research, 77(21), e108-e110. https://doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-17-0307