Type 1 and type 2 cytokine profiles in children exposed to or infected with vertically transmitted human immunodeficiency virus

Bang Ning Lee, Jian Guo Lu, Mark W. Kline, Mary Paul, Marilyn Doyle, Claudia Kozinetz, William T. Shearer, James M. Reuben

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations

Abstract

In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults, cytokine production profiles snitch from predominantly type 1 (interleukin-2 [IL-2] and gamma interferon [IFN-γ]) to type 2 (IL-4 and IL-10) cytokines with disease progression. To test this hypothesis in vertically HIV-infected children, we measured cytokine transcription and production in rapid progressors (RPs), seroreverters (SRs), and those children exposed to HIV in utero (P0s). Production of type 1 and type 2 cytokines was measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures of 8 SR, 25 P0, and 11 RP children. Unstimulated cultures, irrespective of infection and stage of disease, produced similar levels of IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-10. Upon stimulation with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) plus phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), RP children produced less IL-2 (P < 0.01) and IFN-γ (P < 0.02) than SR children and also expressed significantly less IFN-γ mRNA (P < 0.01) than SR children. RP children expressed significantly higher levels of IL-4 mRNA than P0 children (P < 0.03). There were no differences in the production of IL-10 by PHA-PMA-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures among the three groups of children. Our data with these pediatric patients suggest that a deficiency in mitogen-stimulated type 1 cytokine production and excess type 2 cytokine (IL-4) transcription correlate with disease progression. Additional studies with larger sample sizes are needed to test further the hypothesis of the type 1-to-type 2 cytokine switch in children infected with HIV.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)493-499
Number of pages7
JournalClinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology
Volume3
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - 1996

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Microbiology (medical)

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