Ultrasound of fetal cardiac anomalies

Prabhakar Rajiah, Ceayee Mak, Theodore J. Dubinksy, Manjiri Dighe

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVE. Fetal cardiac anomalies are common, with half of them being lethal or requiring complex surgeries. Early detection of these anomalies enables early referral to tertiary care centers with adequate expertise. A routine antenatal ultrasound performed between 18 and 22 weeks enables detection of most of these malformations. Further comprehensive evaluation can be performed with a dedicated fetal echocardiography, particularly in highrisk pregnancies and in cases with extracardiac anomalies. CONCLUSION. Doppler imaging is used in the evaluation of vascular and valvular lesions. Three-dimensional imaging enables reconstruction of multiple complex planes from a single transverse acquisition. Four-dimensional imaging enables cine looping of images in multiple planes, enabling estimation of cardiac motion and function. This review illustrates the various sonographic techniques for evaluation of fetal hearts and the imaging appearance of various fetal cardiac anomalies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)W747-W760
JournalAmerican Journal of Roentgenology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2011


  • Anomalies
  • Cardiac
  • Fetal
  • Heart
  • Malformations
  • Ultrasound

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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