Uric acid nephrolithiasis may be the final manifestation of various pathophysiological processes. Recent advances in renal urate transport have elucidated mechanisms by which hyperuricosuria occurs. However, in most uric acid stone formers the primary pathophysiologic defect is an excessively acidic urine pH rather than hyperuricosuria. Insulin resistance may contribute to the development of acidic urine by augmenting endogenous acid production and decreasing renal ammonium excretion. Medical management strategies focus primarily on alkali treatment or decreasing hyperuricosuria.
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