Objective: To evaluate how variations in peri-operative urine culture (UCx) and antibiotic prophylaxis utilization following robot assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty (RALP) affect post-RALP urinary tract infection (UTI) rates in children, then use data to generate a standardized care pathway. Methods: Patients undergoing RALP at a single institution from January 2014 to October 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with vesicoureteral reflux, neurogenic bladder, intermittent catheterization, <=2 months follow-up after stent removal, or age >=18 years were excluded. UCx use, UCx results, and pre- and post-RALP antibiotic use were recorded. The primary outcome was symptomatic UTI, tracked until 60 days after stent removal. UTI was defined as presence of fever or urinary symptoms, a positive UCx with >=10,000 colony forming units of one uropathogen, and a positive urinalysis. Results: A total of 152 patients were included (72% male [73% circumcised], 61% white, and 23% Hispanic). One underwent a re-operative pyeloplasty, yielding 153 encounters. Eight patients (5.2%; 95% CI 1.7-8.7%) developed post-RALP UTI. Uncircumcised status and use of pre-operative prophylactic antibiotics were associated with post-RALP UTI (P =.03 and P <.01, respectively). Use of post-RALP antibiotics, whether prophylactic or therapeutic, was not associated with lower UTI rates (P =.92). Positive pre-RALP UCx and positive intra-operative stent removal UCx were associated with higher UTI rates (P =.03 and P <.01, respectively). Conclusion: UTI occurred in 5.2% of our cohort of >150 patients. As post-RALP antibiotic use was not associated with lower UTI rates, prophylactic antibiotics may be reserved for patients with risk factors. A standardized care pathway could safely reduce unnecessary utilization of UA/UCx and antibiotics.
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