Type 2 diabetes is a risk factor for nephrolithiasis in general and has been associated with uric acid stones in particular. The purpose of this study was to identify the metabolic features that place patients with type 2 diabetes at increased risk for uric acid nephrolithiasis. Three groups of individuals were recruited for this outpatient study: Patients who have type 2 diabetes and are not stone formers (n = 24), patients who do not have diabetes and are uric acid stone formers (UASF; n = 8), and normal volunteers (NV; n = 59). Participants provided a fasting blood sample and a single 24-h urine collection for stone risk analysis. Twenty-four-hour urine volume and total uric acid did not differ among the three groups. Patients with type 2 diabetes and UASF had lower 24-h urine pH than NV. Urine pH inversely correlated with both body weight and 24-h urine sulfate in all groups. Urine pH remained significantly lower in patients with type 2 diabetes and UASF than NV after adjustment for weight and urine sulfate (P < 0.01). For a given urine sulfate, urine net acid excretion tended to be higher in patients with type 2 diabetes versus NV. With increasing urine sulfate, NV and patients with type 2 diabetes had a similar rise in urine ammonium, whereas in UASF, ammonium excretion remained unchanged. The main risk factor for uric acid nephrolithiasis in patients with type 2 diabetes is a low urine pH. Higher body mass and increased acid intake can contribute to but cannot entirely account for the lower urine pH in patients with type 2 diabetes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas