Objective: Variability in recovery time following sport-related concussion (SRC) is poorly understood. We explored the utility of brief mood, anxiety, and sleep questionnaires as postinjury predictors of SRC symptom clearance in adolescents. Method: At initial visit 0-2 weeks postinjury, concussed athletes aged 12-18 years self-reported injury/medical factors (prior concussion, loss of consciousness, amnesia, and concussion symptom severity) and were administered psychological symptom measures. At 3 months, medical record review determined return-to-play (RTP) date. Subjects were divided into two datasets, with the first utilized for developing cutoff scores and then validated with the second dataset. Results: A total of 64% of the 141 participants had early RTP (within 21 days postinjury), and 23% had late RTP (postinjury day 30 or later). The Generalized Anxiety Disorder Screener (GAD-7, M = 2.1, SD = 3.1) was the only significant predictor (p =. 001), with a 1.4-fold [95% CI 1.2-1.8] increased risk for every point. No other factors in the full model discriminated recovery groups (ps >. 05). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis derived a GAD-7 cut score ≥3 (sensitivity= 56.7%, specificity = 74.2%, AUCs = 0.63-0.79, ps <. 001). Conclusions: Postconcussion anxiety symptoms may help identify individuals at increased risk for prolonged recovery.
- Adolescent psychology
- Neuropsychological rehabilitation
- Psychological screening inventory
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
- Clinical Psychology
- Psychiatry and Mental health