Background. Excessive weight (EW) gain is common after solid organ transplantation, but there is little information concerning obesity after pancreas transplantation. The study goal was to characterize EW gain after kidney-pancreas (KP) transplantation. Methods. This was a retrospective single-center review of 100 KP recipients transplanted between September 2007 and June 2015. Results. The median percent weight gain for all recipients at 1 year posttransplant was 10% (interquartile range, 2.7%-19.3%) of baseline weight. EW gain, defined as greater than or equal to a 19% 1-year increase in weight, included all recipients (n = 26) above the upper limit of interquartile range for weight gain at 1 year. In multivariate analysis, recipient age <40 years, the use of tacrolimus/mammalian target of rapamycin immunosuppression, and an acute rejection event were independent risk factors for EW gain. At a mean follow-up of 43±23 months, there was no difference in patient or graft survival between the EW and non-EW cohorts. Although mean hemoglobin A1c levels between groups were equivalent, the EW versus non-EW cohort displayed a significant increase in mean insulin levels and a trend towards higher C-peptide levels. Criteria for posttransplant metabolic syndrome was met in 34.6% of EW versus 17.6% of non-EW cohorts (P = 0.07). Conclusions. At intermediate-term follow-up, EW gain after KP transplantation was not associated with an increased risk of death or graft loss, although there was a trend toward a greater risk of posttransplant metabolic syndrome. There may be a metabolic consequence of successful pancreas transplantation that results in EW gain in a proportion of recipients, leading to an increased risk of long-term cardiovascular complications.
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