The pathogenic bacteria Yersinia spp. contain a virulence plasmid that encodes a type III secretion system and effectors. During infection, four of the effectors target the actin cytoskeleton, crippling the phagocytic machinery in the infected cell. The remaining two effectors dampen the innate immune response by targeting important signalling pathways. Although the biochemical activity for each of these effectors is known, the mechanisms involved in their ordered secretion and delivery remain elusive.
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