Hypoxia stimulates degradation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase through accumulation of lanosterol and hypoxia-inducible factor-mediated induction of insigs

Andrew D. Nguyen, Jeffrey G. McDonald, Richard K. Bruick, Russell A. DeBose-Boyd

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61 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation of the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase represents one mechanism by which cholesterol synthesis is controlled in mammalian cells. The key reaction in this degradation is binding of reductase to Insig proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum, which is stimulated by the cholesterol precursor lanosterol. Conversion of lanosterol to cholesterol requires removal of three methyl groups, which consumes nine molecules of dioxygen. Here, we report that oxygen deprivation (hypoxia) slows demethylation of lanosterol and its metabolite 24,25-dihydrolanosterol, causing both sterols to accumulate in cells. In addition, hypoxia increases the amount of Insig-1 and Insig-2 in a response mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α. Accumulation of lanosterol together with increased Insigs accelerates degradation of reductase, which ultimately slows a rate-determining step in cholesterol synthesis. These results define a novel oxygen-sensing mechanism mediated by the combined actions of methylated intermediates in cholesterol synthesis and the hypoxia-activated transcription factor HIF-1α.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)27436-27446
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Volume282
Issue number37
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 14 2007

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Lanosterol
Oxidoreductases
Cholesterol
Degradation
Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1
Oxygen
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation
Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases
Sterols
Metabolites
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Transcription Factors
Cells
3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A
Hypoxia
Molecules
Enzymes
Proteins

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry

Cite this

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title = "Hypoxia stimulates degradation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase through accumulation of lanosterol and hypoxia-inducible factor-mediated induction of insigs",
abstract = "Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation of the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase represents one mechanism by which cholesterol synthesis is controlled in mammalian cells. The key reaction in this degradation is binding of reductase to Insig proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum, which is stimulated by the cholesterol precursor lanosterol. Conversion of lanosterol to cholesterol requires removal of three methyl groups, which consumes nine molecules of dioxygen. Here, we report that oxygen deprivation (hypoxia) slows demethylation of lanosterol and its metabolite 24,25-dihydrolanosterol, causing both sterols to accumulate in cells. In addition, hypoxia increases the amount of Insig-1 and Insig-2 in a response mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α. Accumulation of lanosterol together with increased Insigs accelerates degradation of reductase, which ultimately slows a rate-determining step in cholesterol synthesis. These results define a novel oxygen-sensing mechanism mediated by the combined actions of methylated intermediates in cholesterol synthesis and the hypoxia-activated transcription factor HIF-1α.",
author = "Nguyen, {Andrew D.} and McDonald, {Jeffrey G.} and Bruick, {Richard K.} and DeBose-Boyd, {Russell A.}",
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AU - DeBose-Boyd, Russell A.

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N2 - Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation of the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase represents one mechanism by which cholesterol synthesis is controlled in mammalian cells. The key reaction in this degradation is binding of reductase to Insig proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum, which is stimulated by the cholesterol precursor lanosterol. Conversion of lanosterol to cholesterol requires removal of three methyl groups, which consumes nine molecules of dioxygen. Here, we report that oxygen deprivation (hypoxia) slows demethylation of lanosterol and its metabolite 24,25-dihydrolanosterol, causing both sterols to accumulate in cells. In addition, hypoxia increases the amount of Insig-1 and Insig-2 in a response mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α. Accumulation of lanosterol together with increased Insigs accelerates degradation of reductase, which ultimately slows a rate-determining step in cholesterol synthesis. These results define a novel oxygen-sensing mechanism mediated by the combined actions of methylated intermediates in cholesterol synthesis and the hypoxia-activated transcription factor HIF-1α.

AB - Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation of the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase represents one mechanism by which cholesterol synthesis is controlled in mammalian cells. The key reaction in this degradation is binding of reductase to Insig proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum, which is stimulated by the cholesterol precursor lanosterol. Conversion of lanosterol to cholesterol requires removal of three methyl groups, which consumes nine molecules of dioxygen. Here, we report that oxygen deprivation (hypoxia) slows demethylation of lanosterol and its metabolite 24,25-dihydrolanosterol, causing both sterols to accumulate in cells. In addition, hypoxia increases the amount of Insig-1 and Insig-2 in a response mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α. Accumulation of lanosterol together with increased Insigs accelerates degradation of reductase, which ultimately slows a rate-determining step in cholesterol synthesis. These results define a novel oxygen-sensing mechanism mediated by the combined actions of methylated intermediates in cholesterol synthesis and the hypoxia-activated transcription factor HIF-1α.

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